Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) of pectin from black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) pomace

Document Type : Original research


1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


Microwave assisted extraction (MAE) tech-nique was employed for the extraction of pectin from black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) pomace in this research. The effects of process variables namely microwave power (300-900 watt), irradiation time (10-30 min) and liquid to solid ratio (15-30 mL/g) on the yield, degree of esterification (DE) and galacturonic acid content (GalA) of pectin were investigated and optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM) with a face canter central composite design. Depending on the extraction conditions, the yield, DE and GalA of pectins varied in the range of 8.87-14.47% (dry weight basis), 44.44-57.06%, and 29.17-43.13%, respectively. The results showed that both the microwave power and irradiation time had highly significant effects on the pectin yield, while the effect of liquid to solid ratio was found to be not significant, in this regard. The optimal extraction conditions for maximum yield, DE and GalA of pectin were power of 900 watt, irradiation time of 18.17 min and liquid to solid ratio of 15 mL/g. Under these conditions, 13.16% of pectin with DE of 55.07% and GalA of 36.94% was extracted. The intrinsic viscosity and viscosity average molecular weight of a representative pectin sample was also determined and it was found to be 1.22 dL/g and 32.78 kDa, respectively. The black mulberry pomace pectin showed a viscoelastic behavior in the frequency sweep test and the crossover between G' and G" occurred at low frequency region (~ 0.07 rad/s).


Alistair, M. S., Glyn, O. P., & Peter, A. W. (2006) Food Polysaccharide and their Applications, 2nd ed., CRC Press, New York.
Anger, H., & Berth, G. (1986). Gel permeation chromatography and the Mark-Houwink relation for pectins with different degrees of esterification. Carbohydrate Polymers, 6(3), 193–202.
Bagherian, H., Ashtiani, F. Z., Fouladitajar, A., & Mohtashamy, M. (2011). Comparisons between conventional, microwave-and ultrasound-assisted methods for extraction of pectin from grapefruit. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 50(11), 1237–1243.
Bélafi-Bakó, K., Cserjési, P., Beszédes, S., Csanádi, Z., & Hodúr, C. (2012). Berry pectins: microwave-assisted extraction and rheological properties. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(3), 1100–1105.
Bochek, A. M., Zabivalova, N. M., & Petropavlovskii, G. A. (2001). Determination of the esterification degree of polygalacturonic acid. Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 74(5), 796–799.
Chan, S.-Y., & Choo, W.-S. (2013). Effect of extraction conditions on the yield and chemical properties of pectin from cocoa husks. Food Chemistry, 141(4), 3752–3758. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.097
Chen, Y., Zhang, J.-G., Sun, H.-J., & Wei, Z.-J. (2014). Pectin from Abelmoschus esculentus: Optimization of extraction and rheological properties. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 70, 498–505.
Cserjési, P., Bélafi-Bakó, K., Csanádi, Z., Beszédes, S., & Hodúr, C. (2011). Simultaneous recovery of pectin and colorants from solid agro-wastes formed in processing of colorful berries. Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences, 7(1), 65–80.
Ercisli, S., & Orhan, E. (2008). Some physico-chemical characteristics of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) genotypes from Northeast Anatolia region of Turkey. Scientia Horticulturae, 116(1), 41–46.
Guo, X., Han, D., Xi, H., Rao, L., Liao, X., Hu, X., & Wu, J. (2012). Extraction of pectin from navel orange peel assisted by ultra-high pressure, microwave or traditional heating: A comparison. Carbohydrate Polymers, 88(2), 441–448.
Hager, A., Howard, L. R., Prior, R. L., & Brownmiller, C. (2008). Processing and storage effects on monomeric anthocyanins, percent polymeric color, and antioxidant capacity of processed black raspberry products. Journal of Food Science, 73(6), H134–H140.
Hilz, H., Bakx, E. J., Schols, H. A., & Voragen, A. G. J. (2005). Cell wall polysaccharides in black currants and bilberries—characterisation in berries, juice, and press cake. Carbohydrate Polymers, 59(4), 477–488.
Hojjatpanah, G., Fazaeli, M., & Emam‐Djomeh, Z. (2011). Effects of heating method and conditions on the quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46(5), 956–962.
Iagher, F., Reicher, F., & Ganter, J. (2002). Structural and rheological properties of polysaccharides from mango (Mangifera indica L.) pulp. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 31(1–3), 9–17.
Iglesias, M. T., & Lozano, J. E. (2004). Extraction and characterization of sunflower pectin. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(3), 215–223.
Imran, M., Khan, H., Shah, M., Khan, R., & Khan, F. (2010). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morus species. Journal of Zhejiang University Science B, 11(12), 973–980.
Kamiloglu, S., Serali, O., Unal, N., & Capanoglu, E. (2013). Antioxidant activity and polyphenol composition of black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) products. Journal of Berry Research, 3(1), 41–51.
Kiss, K. (2009). Extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis of pectins. Ph. D. dissertation. Veszprem, Hungary: University of Pannonia.
Koubala, B. B., Kansci, G., Mbome, L. I., Crépeau, M.-J., Thibault, J.-F., & Ralet, M.-C. (2008). Effect of extraction conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of pectins from “Amelioree” and “Mango” mango peels. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(7), 1345–1351.
Lapasin, R. (2012). Rheology of industrial polysaccharides: theory and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.
Li, D., Jia, X., Wei, Z., & Liu, Z. (2012). Box–Behnken experimental design for investigation of microwave-assisted extracted sugar beet pulp pectin. Carbohydrate Polymers, 88(1), 342–346.
Lv, C., Wang, Y., Wang, L., Li, D., & Adhikari, B. (2013). Optimization of production yield and functional properties of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp. Carbohydrate Polymers, 95(1), 233–240.
Maran, J. P., Sivakumar, V., Thirugnanasambandham, K., & Sridhar, R. (2013). Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from orange peel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 97(2), 703–709.
May, C. D. (1990). Industrial pectins: sources, production and applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 12(1), 79–99.
Methacanon, P., Krongsin, J., & Gamonpilas, C. (2014). Food Hydrocolloids Pomelo (Citrus maxima) pectin : Effects of extraction parameters and its properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 35, 383–391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodhyd.2013.06.018
Norziah, M. H., Kong, S. S., Karim, A. A., & Seow, C. C. (2001). Pectin–sucrose–Ca2+ interactions: effects on rheological properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 15(4–6), 491–498.
Pagan, J., Ibarz, A., Llorca, M., Pagan, A., & Barbosa-Cánovas, G. V. (2001). Extraction and characterization of pectin from stored peach pomace. Food Research International, 34(7), 605–612.
Pérez-Gregorio, M. R., Regueiro, J., Alonso-González, E., Pastrana-Castro, L. M., & Simal-Gándara, J. (2011). Influence of alcoholic fermentation process on antioxidant activity and phenolic levels from mulberries (Morus nigra L.). LWT-Food Science and Technology, 44(8), 1793–1801.
Ridley, B. L., O’Neill, M. A., & Mohnen, D. (2001). Pectins: structure, biosynthesis, and oligogalacturonide-related signaling. Phytochemistry, 57(6), 929–967.
Santos, J. D. G., Espeleta, A. F., Branco, A., & de Assis, S. a. (2013). Aqueous extraction of pectin from sisal waste. Carbohydrate Polymers, 92(2), 1997–2001.
Seixas, F. L., Fukuda, D. L., Turbiani, F. R. B., Garcia, P. S., Carmen, L. de O., Jagadevan, S., & Gimenes, M. L. (2014). Extraction of pectin from passion fruit peel (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) by microwave-induced heating. Food Hydrocolloids, 38, 186–192.
Thakur, B. R., Singh, R. K., Handa, A. K., & Rao, M. A. (1997). Chemistry and uses of pectin-a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition, 37(1), 47–73.
Thirugnanasambandham, K., Sivakumar, V., & Maran, J. P. (2014). Process optimization and analysis of microwave assisted extraction of pectin from dragon fruit peel. Carbohydrate Polymers, 112, 622–626.
Wang, L., & Weller, C. L. (2006). Recent advances in extraction of nutraceuticals from plants. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 17(6), 300–312.
Wang, S., Chen, F., Wu, J., Wang, Z., Liao, X., & Hu, X. (2007). Optimization of pectin extraction assisted by microwave from apple pomace using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 78(2), 693–700.
Yapo, B. M., Robert, C., Etienne, I., Wathelet, B., & Paquot, M. (2007). Effect of extraction conditions on the yield, purity and surface properties of sugar beet pulp pectin extracts. Food Chemistry, 100(4), 1356–1364.
Yeoh, S., Shi, J., & Langrish, T. A. G. (2008). Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels. Desalination, 218(1), 229–237.