Rheological, antioxidant, physicochemical, and biochemical characterization of Iranian monofloral honeys

Document Type : Original research


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Saba Institute of Higher Education, Urmia, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


The present study provides an analysis of physicochemical, biochemical, and rheological properties of four types of monofloral honey: Ziziphus, Thymus, Astragalus, and Alfalfa. Physicochemical (palynology, moisture, pH, free acidity, insoluble solid, ash, conductivity, hue, and minerals), biochemical (sucrose, Hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity, antioxidant properties, total flavonoid, and total phenol) and rheological parameters were measured. The results of the palynology (pollen) test confirmed that the honey samples were monofloral. Hydroxymethylfurfural was 0.64±0.34 mg/kg for Ziziphus, 1.09±0.37 mg/kg for Thymus, 4.98±0.37 mg/kg for Astragalus, and 2.94±0.52 mg/kg for Alfalfa. The results showed that sucrose content for Ziziphus, Thymus, Astragalus, and Alfalfa was 0.89±0.34, 3.66±1.79, 2.17±1.10, and 4.14±0.97%, respectively. Diastase activity was 18.06±0.17 DN for Ziziphus, 16.36±2.08 DN for Thymus, 15.21±0.31 DN for Astragalus, and 2.94±0.09 DN for Alfalfa. Antioxidant activity was 13.64±3.34% for Ziziphus, 29.52±2.52% for Thymus, 29.51±3.30% for Astragalus, and 57.77±4.79% for Alfalfa. The results of the present study showed that monofloral honey samples in Iran have an appropriate level of sucrose and can be a good dietary option for people with diabetes. Moreover, total phenol and total flavonoid contents in our samples were lower than other types in other countries. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of our samples was comparable to other types and can be exported to other countries. The results showed that Iranian monofloral honey has the potential to compete with other countries’ honey in terms of quality and nutritional value.


Main Subjects

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