Document Type : Original research

Authors

1 Department of Biology, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Food safety and quality control, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Chemistry, KCG College of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India – 600097

Abstract

Saffron is a spice derived from the flower of Crocus sativus L. The present study reports the antioxidant capacity and chemical compositions of various parts of saffron. The IC50 for stigma, style, stamen, petal and corm was found to be 4.94 ± 0.25, 123.68 ± 8.52, 58.97 ± 3.63, 46.02 ± 2.89 and 720.49 ± 14.32 μg/mL, respectively. The ferric reducing antioxidant power assay for these parts of saffron flower was determined and the stigma of saffron has the highest (2.36 ± 0.15 g Fe+2/100 g sample) and the corm of saffron has the lowest value (0.03 ± 0.001 g Fe+2/100 g sample). The Folin-Ciocalteu method was used to estimate the total phenolic content and the highest amount was found in stigma (183.25 ± 16.42 g quercetin/100 g sample) and the lowest amount in style of saffron (3.72 ± 0.89 g quercetin/100 g sample) respectively. The stigma and stamen of saffron were found to have 597.67 ± 11.12 and 159.14 ± 5.03 μg/g sample of carotenoid content which is highest among the selected parts of saffron. The aim of this study was to provide information about all of the saffron flower parts.

Keywords

Abe, K., & Saito, H. (2000). Effects of saffron extract and its constituent crocin on learning behaviour and long-term potentiation. Phytotherapy Research, 14(3), 149-152.
Abou-Arab, A. A. K., & Abou Donia, M. A. (2001). Pesticide residues in some Egyptian spices and medicinal plants as affected by processing. Food Chemistry, 72(4), 439-445.
Baba, S. A., Malik, A. H., Wani, Z. A., Mohiuddin, T., Shah, Z., Abbas, N., & Ashraf, N. (2015). Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of different tissue types of Crocus sativus and oxidative stress alleviating potential of saffron extract in plants, bacteria, and yeast. South African Journal of Botany, 99, 80-87.
Benzie, I. F. F., & Strain, J. J. (1999). Ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid concentration Methods in Enzymology (Vol. 299, pp. 15-27): Academic Press.
de Carvalho, L. M. J., Gomes, P. B., Godoy, R. L. d. O., Pacheco, S., do Monte, P. H. F., de Carvalho, J. L. V., . . . Ramos, S. R. R. (2012). Total carotenoid content, α-carotene and β-carotene, of landrace pumpkins (Cucurbita moschata Duch): A preliminary study. Food Research International, 47(2), 337-340.
Ferrara, L., Naviglio, D., & Gallo, M. (2014). Extraction of bioactive compounds of saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) by ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and by rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction (RSLDE). European Scientific Journal, 10(3), 1-13.
Ghorbani, M. (2008). The Efficiency of saffron’s marketing channel in Iran. World Applied Sciences Journal, 4, 523-527.
Haghighi, B., Feizy, J., & Hemati Kakhki, A. (2007). LC determination of adulterated saffron prepared by adding styles colored with some natural colorants. Chromatographia, 66(5), 325.
Jalali-Heravi, M., Parastar, H., & Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, H. (2009). Characterization of volatile components of Iranian saffron using factorial-based response surface modeling of ultrasonic extraction combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis. Journal of Chromatography A, 1216(33), 6088-6097.
Kafi, M., Kamili, A. N., Husaini, A. M., Ozturk, M., & Altay, V. (2018). An Expensive Spice Saffron (Crocus sativus L.): A Case Study from Kashmir, Iran, and Turkey. In M. Ozturk, K. R. Hakeem, M. Ashraf & M. S. A. Ahmad (Eds.), Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops (pp. 109-149). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
Karimi, E.,  Oskoueian, E., Hendra, R., & Hawa, Z. E. J. (2010). Evaluation of Crocus sativus L. Stigma Phenolic and Flavonoid Compounds and Its Antioxidant Activity. Molecules, 15(9), 6244–6256.
Khoshbakht Fabim, N., Fakoor Janati, S. S., & Feizy, J. (2012). Chemical composition of  agriproduct saffron (Crocus Sativus L.) petals and its considerations as animal feed. Safran (Crocus Sativus) Yapaklarinin Kimyasal Bilešimi Ve Hayvan Yemiolarak Değerlendirilmesi, 37(4), 197-201.
Nithiyanantham, S., Siddhuraju, P., & Francis, G. (2013). A promising approach to enhance the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of raw and processed Jatropha curcas L. kernel meal extracts. Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 261-269.
Pękal, A., & Pyrzynska, K. (2014). Evaluation of Aluminium Complexation Reaction for Flavonoid Content Assay. Food Analytical Methods, 7(9), 1776-1782.
Peter, K. V. (2012). Index. In K. V. Peter (Ed.), Handbook of Herbs and Spices (Second Edition) (pp. 591-607): Woodhead Publishing.
Pieroni, A., Janiak, V., Dürr, C. M., Lüdeke, S., Trachsel, E., & Heinrich, M. (2002). In vitro antioxidant activity of non-cultivated vegetables of ethnic Albanians in southern Italy. Phytotherapy Research, 16(5), 467-473.
Sánchez-Vioque, R., Rodríguez-Conde, M. F., Reina-Ureña, J. V., Escolano-Tercero, M. A., Herraiz-Peñalver, D., & Santana-Méridas, O. (2012). In vitro antioxidant and metal chelating properties of corm, tepal and leaf from saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 39, 149-153.
Serrano-Díaz, J., Sánchez, A. M., Martínez-Tomé, M., Winterhalter, P., & Alonso, G. L. (2013). A contribution to nutritional studies on Crocus sativus flowers and their value as food. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 31(1), 101-108.
Singleton, V. L., & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.
Srinivasan, K. (2014). Antioxidant potential of spices and their active constituents. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 54(3), 352-372.
Torabi, N., & Zarrinkamar, F. (2015). Study of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Tepal and Leaf of Crocus sativus L. During Developmental Stages. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Development, Strategies and Challenges Focusing on Agriculture, Natural Resources, Environment and Tourism, Tabriz, Iran.
Ulbricht, C., Conquer, J., Costa, D., Hollands, W., Iannuzzi, C., Isaac, R., . . . Varghese, M. (2011). An evidence-based systematic review of saffron (Crocus sativus) by the natural standard research collaboration. Journal of Dietary Supplements, 8(1), 58-114.