The rapid spread of nanotechnology has led to the application of this technology in different sectors of the food industry such as processing, packaging, storage, transport, and safety. One of the most important areas in which nanotechnology can help is the safety of food products. Today, food quality and safety control is done with a preventive approach from the farm to the consumer table. The ideal scenario is defined based on minimizing the risk of food contamination without compromising organoleptic properties and food quality. Nanotechnology using various nanostructures can be employed to achieve this ideal scenario. A very wide range of nanostructures such as metal oxides, inorganic metals, and nanocomposites containing biologically active compounds have been used in food products. Nanostructures can help improve the food safety in a variety of ways, such as identifying pathogens, producing active, smart, and antimicrobial edible films, protecting against allergens and biofilms, and other applications. However, there are concerns about the potential dangers of using engineered nanomaterials for human, animal, and environmental health, so careful assessments are needed before the arrival of any of these nanotechnology-based products to gain the satisfaction and trust of the target community. This study suggested that the nanotechnology can be considered as an efficient strategy to improve the safety of food products.