Investigating the effect of emulsifiers and enzymes on the physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics of flat bread fermented by direct and sponge method

Document Type : Original research


Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural & Natural Resources Research Education Center, Agriculture Research, Education & Extension Organization (AREEO), Mashhad, Iran


The present study was performed at two separate stages, the aim of the first stage was to study the effect of two different yeast types (active dry and compressed yeast) using sponge and dough method on various properties of flat bread (pita and Taftoon )prepared by different methods compared to the straight method. The most positive effects on physicochemical and sensory desirability were found in bread samples treated by compressed yeast in the sponge and dough method. After selecting the best sample, adding emulsifiers including SSL and DATEM, and α-amylase as an enzyme at higher level played a key role in increasing the physicochemical and textural values such as moisture, water activity, extensibility, L*, a* and in decreasing the hardness. Furthermore, the general acceptance score of Taftoon bread containing 2 g/kg SSL, 2 g/kg DATEM, and 0.05 g/kg α-amylase was desired more by the panelist, compared with other formulas.


Main Subjects

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