Instrumental texture properties of Spanish turrón, Italian torrone and French nougat

Document Type: Original research

Authors

1 Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Department of Food Science and Technology, Mollasani, Ahwaz, Iran

2 Università degli Studi Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria. Dipartimento di Biotecnologie per il Monitoraggio Agro-alimentare ed Ambientale. C. da Melissari - III Lotto - 89124 Reggio Calabria, Italy

3 Universidad Miguel Hernández de Elche, Departamento de Tecnología Agroalimentaria. Grupo Calidad y Seguridad Alimentaria. Carretera de Beniel, km 3.2. 03312-Orihuela, Alicante, Spain

Abstract

The characteristic texture of turrón, torrone and nougat was examined. They are typical European confections prepared from almonds, honey, sugars and/or chocolate. Three different instrumental tests: puncture, cutting, and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA), were used in this study and samples prepared from three countries (Spain, Italy, and France), and by six manufacturing companies (two companies per each country). All three tests succeed in finding that Spanish Jijona turrón was softer than chocolate torrone, with nougat presenting intermediate values of hardness. The TPA test proved that nougat was intended to be chewable, which implied high values of cohesiveness, springiness, chewiness, and adhesiveness, while on the contrary turrón and torrone were conceived as been breakable and non-adhesive products. These differences in texture attributes were rather due to differences in the manufacturing conditions (e.g. heating time and/or temperature) than to composition factors (e.g. almond content). Results proved that manufacturing conditions (time, temperature) were more important than percentages of ingredients in determining the texture of turrón, torrone and nougat.

Keywords


Boix, A. C. (1999). Aplicación de nuevas tecnologías a la elaboración del turrón de jijona. Generalitat Valenciana, Conselleria de agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación.

Bourne, M. C., Kenny, J. F., & Barnard, J. (1978). Computer‐assisted readout of data from texture profile analysis curves 1. Journal of Texture Studies, 9(4), 481–494.

Bourne, M. C. (1978). Texture profile analysis. Food Technol., 32, 62–66.

Chiralt, A., Galotto, M. J., & Fito, P. (1991). Changes in rheological properties and particle-size distribution during the manufacture of ‘Xixona turron.’ Journal of Food Engineering, 14(2), 117–128.

Lazpita, M. A., Chiralt, A., & Galotto, M. J. (1991). Contribución a la caracterización textural del turrón de Xixona. Anales de Investigación Del Master En Ciencia e Ingeniería de Alimentos I, 809–830.

Lluch, M. A., Galotto, M. J., & Chiralt, A. (1992). Scanning electron microscopy studies of a typical Spanish confectionery product:" Xixona Turron". Food Structure, 11(2), 10.

Martinez, N., & Chiralt, A. (1996). Glass transition and texture in a typical Spanish confectionery product: Xixona turron. Journal of Texture Studies, 26(6), 653–664.

Martínez-Navarrete, N., Fito, P., & Chiralt, A. (1996). Influence of conditions of manufacture and storage time on the textural characteristics of Xixona turrón. Food Control, 7(6), 317–324.

Rosenthal, A. J. (1999). Food Texture. Measurement and Perception. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen Publishers, Inc.

RTS. 1982. Reglamentación Técnico Sanitaria para la Elaboración, Circulación y Venta de Turrones y Mazapanes. Real Decreto 1787/82. (BOE 2/08/82) modified by Real Decreto 1167/90 (BOE 26/09/90). Madrid, Spain: BOE.

Stable Micro Systems Ltd. 1996a. TA-XT2 application study: Comparison of the cutting strength of two different brands of surimi using a knife blade. Surrey, UK: Stable Micro Systems Ltd.

Stable Micro Systems Ltd. 1996b. TA-XT2 application study: Measurement of skin puncture strength of grapes by penetrating with a 2mm cylinder probe. Surrey, UK: Stable Micro Systems Ltd.

Vázquez, L., Verdú, A., Miquel, A., Burló, F., & Carbonell-Barrachina, A. A. (2007). Changes in physico-chemical properties, hydroxymethylfurfural and volatile compounds during concentration of honey and sugars in Alicante and Jijona turrón. European Food Research and Technology, 225(5–6), 757–767.

Vázquez‐Araújo, L., Verdú, A., Murcia, R., Burló, F., & Carbonell‐Barrachina, A. A. (2006). Instrumental texture of a typical Spanish confectionery product Xixona turron as affected by commercial category and manufacturing company. Journal of Texture Studies, 37(1), 63–79.

Verdú, A., Vázquez-Araujo, L., & Carbonell-Barrachina, Á. A. (2007). Mathematical quantification of almond content in Jijona turrón. European Food Research and Technology, 226(1–2), 301–306.