Thermal processing determination time for fermented and acidified indigenes Iranian vegetables

Document Type: Original research

Author

Associate Professor, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these, along with pasteurization, to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety.  Effect of lowering the pH, either by adding acid or lactic fermentation, on thermal process requirements for canned vegetables was investigated. Malic acid was preferred for acidification of canned vegetables. Addition of acid to covering brine was preferable to the blanching in acid solution, as the acidification was uniform, and it reduced the extent of discolouration. Acidification by lactic fermentation, using 2% hot brine to cover the prepared vegetable, reduced the pH to 3.8 in 3 days. Fermentation is initiated by the species of Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus followed by Pediococcus and Streptococcus, Process time, based on a sterilisation value of = 3.5 min, was adequate to render the canned acidified vegetables (pH ≤ 4.0) microbiologically safe. The process time required for  mm and  mm cans, having initial temperature of 65°C, was 15 min or less in boiling water. Colour of the lactic fermented canned products was superior to canned vegetables acidified with malic acid. Both had texture similar to that of the freshly cooked vegetables. Products acidified by fermentation had minimal sour taste.

Keywords


Andersson, R. E., Eriksson, C. E., Salomonsson, B. A. C., & Theander, O. (1990). Lactic acid fermentation of fresh and stored carrot: chemical, microbial and sensory evaluation of products. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft+ Technologie= Food science+ technology, 23:34-40.

Andersson, R. E. (1988). Biogenic amines in lactic acid-fermented vegetables. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft+ Technologie21(1), 68-69.

Azizi, A. (2000). Principals of canning. In: Adams, A.M., Jinneman, K.C., Ortega, Y.R., Robinson, R.K., Bati, C.A. and Patel, P.B. (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Food Microbiology. Academic Press Ltd UK.

Aslan, A., & Ranganna, S. (1993). Spoilage organisms of canned acidified mango pulp and their relevance to thermal processing of acid foods. Journal of Food Science and Technology (India)30(4), 241-245.

Beltrán-Edeza, L. M., & Hernández-Sánchez, H. (1985). Preservation of ripe tomatoes by lactic acid fermentation. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 65-67.

Breidt, F., Pérez-Díaz, I., McFeeters, R. F., & Lee, C. H. (2013). Fermented vegetables. In Food Microbiology (pp. 841-855). American Society of Microbiology.

Cleveland, J., Montville, T. J., Nes, I. F., & Chikindas, M. L. (2001). Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation. International journal of food microbiology71(1), 1-20.

Dziezak, J.D.. (1990). Acidulant; ingredients that do more than meet the acid test. Food technology. 44(1):76-83.

FDA (2016). Guidance for Commercial Processors of Acidified & Low-Acid Canned Foods.

Fleming, H. P., & McFeeters, R. F. (1981). Use of Microbial Cultures: Vegetable Products. Food technology35(1), 84-87.

Gavin, A., & Weddig, L. M. (Eds.). (1995). Canned foods: Principles of thermal process control, acidification and container closure evaluation. Food Processors Institute.

HiMedia. (1989). Product information. HiMedia Lab pvt ltd.Bombay.

Hoogzand, C. (1961). Effect of blanching on texture and pectin of canned cauliflower. Food Technol., 160-163.

Kandler, O., Weiss, N. (1986). Genus Lactobacillus . In: Sneath PHA, peter MS, Holt G.j (cds) bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, vol. 2, Williams and Wilkins co., Baltimore, pp. 1208-1234.

Kotzekidou, P., & Roukas, T. (1987a). Quality characteristics of fermented and acidified canned okra. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft+ Technologie20(6), 300-304.

Kotzekidou, P., & Roukas, T. (1987b). Fermentation characteristics of lactobacilli in okra (Hibiscus esculentus) juice. Journal of Food Science52(2), 487-488.

KOZUP, J., & Sistrunk, W. A. (1982). Quality attributes of fermented and acidified green beans. Journal of Food Science47(3), 1001-1005.

National Canners Association (NCA). Research Laboratories (Ed.). (1968). Laboratory Manual for Food Canners and Processors: Analysis, sanitation, and statistics (Vol. 2). AVI Publishing Company.

Patashnik, M. (1953). A simplified procedure for thermal process evaluation. Food Technology7(1), 1-6.

Ranganna, S. (1986). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Saikia, L., & Ranganna, S. (1992). Determination of thermal process schedules for canned drumstick, okra, elephant yam and potato. Journal of Food Science and Technology29(4), 203-209.

Setty, G. R., & Ranganna, S. (1972). Discolouration and disintegration in canned cauliflower. Indian Food Packer26(6), 5-12.

Sharpe, M. E., Fryer, T. F. and Smith, D.G. (1979). Identification of the lactic acid bacteria. Identification methods for microbiologists, 157: 233-259.

Steinkraus, K. H. (1983). Acid fermented vegetables. Handbook of Indigenous Fermented Foods Involving an Acid Fermentation.  pp. 95-299.

Stumbo, C. R. (1973). Thermo bacteriology of Food Processing, 2nd Edn. AVI Publishing Co., Academic Press, New York.

Šušković, J., Kos, B., Beganović, J., Leboš Pavunc, A., Habjanič, K., & Matošić, S. (2010). Antimicrobial activity–the most important property of probiotic and starter lactic acid bacteria. Food Technology and Biotechnology48(3), 296-307.