Investigating the mechanical, physical and antimicrobial properties of gelatin films containing Cinnamomum verum hydrosol

Document Type : Original research


Department of Food Science and Technology, Neyshabur Branch, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur 93199-75853, Iran


Hydrosol is a side product of essential oil extraction from plants. In this study, the effect of various ratios (5-100 %v/v) of cinnamon hydrosol replacement in the formulation of edible gelatin films was investigated. Physical properties were evaluated and the antibacterial properties of gelatin films against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were assessed. Evaluation of chemical component of cinnamon hydrosol was performed by GC - Mass chromatography. After production control film, modified gelatin films were made by replacement different ratios of cinnamon hydrosol (5, 30, 50, 80 and 100 %v/v) instead of the water in gelatin film formulation. Physical and mechanical properties of resulted films such as water vapor permeability, film thickness, transparency, light transmittance were evaluated. FTIR and SEM were also carried out. Antimicrobial characteristic of gelatin films were evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis by measuring inhibition zone diameter. Results showed that the use of cinnamon hydrosol increased barrier property of gelatin films. Tensile strength increased by adding hydrosol in the edible film formulation (from 15.3 ± 1.5 MPa in control sample to 32.3 ± 3.3 MPa in gelatin film incorporated with 100% cinnamon hydrosol), but the elongation of the films, decreased (from 175 ± 5.5% in control sample to 92 ± 3% in gelatin film incorporated with 100% cinnamon hydrosol). Furthermore, addition of various hydrosol ratios significantly decreased the WVP values (p ≤ 0.01).  Staphylococcus aureus was most sensitive to gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon hydrosol and its inhibition zone at 100% hydrosol was 33 mm.


Acheampong, A., Borquaye, L. S., Acquaah, S. O., Osei-Owusu, J., & Tuani, G. K. (2015). Antimicrobial activities of some leaves and fruit peels hydrosols. International Journal of Chemical and Biomolecular Science, 1(3), 158–162.
Alparslan, Y., Yapıcı, H. H., Metin, C., Baygar, T., Günlü, A., & Baygar, T. (2016). Quality assessment of shrimps preserved with orange leaf essential oil incorporated gelatin. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 72, 457–466.
Bonilla, J., Poloni, T., Lourenço, R. V, & Sobral, P. J. A. (2018). Antioxidant potential of eugenol and ginger essential oils with gelatin/chitosan films. Food Bioscience, 23, 107–114.
Cid-Pérez, T. S., Ávila-Sosa, R., Ochoa-Velasco, C. E., Rivera-Chavira, B. E., & Nevárez-Moorillón, G. V. (2019). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of mexican oregano (poliomintha longiflora) essential oil, hydrosol and extracts from waste solid residues. Plants, 8(1), 22.
D’Amato, S., Serio, A., López, C. C., & Paparella, A. (2018). Hydrosols: Biological activity and potential as antimicrobials for food applications. Food Control, 86, 126–137.
Dashipour, A., Khaksar, R., Hosseini, H., Shojaee-Aliabadi, S., & Kiandokht, G. (2014). Physical, antioxidant and antimicrobial characteristics of carboxymethyl cellulose edible film cooperated with clove essential oil. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 16(8), 34–42.
Garneau, F.-X., Collin, G., & Gagnon, H. (2014). Chemical composition and stability of the hydrosols obtained during essential oil production. II. The case of Picea glauca (Moench) Voss., Solidago puberula Nutt., and Mentha piperita L. Am. J. Essent. Oils Nat. Prod, 2, 29–35.
Hay, Y.-O., Abril-Sierra, M. A., Sequeda-Castañeda, L. G., Bonnafous, C., & Raynaud, C. (2018). Evaluation of combinations of essential oils and essential oils with hydrosols on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacognosy Research, 6(3), 216–230.
Hoque, M. S., Benjakul, S., & Prodpran, T. (2011). Properties of film from cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis) skin gelatin incorporated with cinnamon, clove and star anise extracts. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(5), 1085–1097.
Kaewprom, K., Chen, Y.-H., Lin, C.-F., Chiou, M.-T., & Lin, C.-N. (2017). Antiviral activity of Thymus vulgaris and Nepeta cataria hydrosols against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. The Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 47(1), 25–33.
Karami, N., Kamkar, A., Shahbazi, Y., & Misaghi, A. (2019). Edible films based on chitosan-flaxseed mucilage: in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and their application on survival of food-borne pathogenic bacteria in raw minced trout fillets. Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research, 5(2), 10–16.
Kim, H., Beak, S.-E., & Song, K. Bin. (2018). Development of a hagfish skin gelatin film containing cinnamon bark essential oil. LWT, 96, 583–588.
Labadie, C., Cerutti, C., & Carlin, F. (2016). Fate and control of pathogenic and spoilage micro‐organisms in orange blossom (Citrus aurantium) and rose flower (Rosa centifolia) hydrosols. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 121(6), 1568–1579.
Martucci, J. F., Gende, L. B., Neira, L. M., & Ruseckaite, R. A. (2015). Oregano and lavender essential oils as antioxidant and antimicrobial additives of biogenic gelatin films. Industrial Crops and Products, 71, 205–213.
Maruthamuthu, R., & Ramanathan, K. (2016). Phytochemical analysis of bark extract of Cinnamomum verum a medicinal herb used for the treatment of coronary heart disease in malayali tribes. International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research, 8, 1218–1222.
Mirfeizi, M., Mehdizadeh Tourzani, Z., Mirfeizi, S. Z., Asghari Jafarabadi, M., Rezvani, H., & Shoghi, M. (2014). Effects of cinnamon on controlling blood glucose and lipids in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A double blind, randomized clinical trial. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, 57(3), 533–541.
Mohammadi, N., Mirhosseini, M., Shirzad, M., Dehghan Hamdan, A., & Yazdani, N. (2015). Synthesizing ZnO nanoparticles by high-energy milling and investigating their antimicrobial effect. SSU_Journals, 23(4), 2070–2082.
Moradian Eivari, A. A., Salehi, M., & Malek Jafarian, M. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis on vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from Imam Reza Hospital patients of Mashhad. J Neyshabur Univ Med Sci, 3(3), 39–45.
Sharma, N., Jandaik, S., Kumar, S., Chitkara, M., & Sandhu, I. S. (2016). Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activity of manganese-and iron-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, 11(1), 54–71.
Siracusa, V., Romani, S., Gigli, M., Mannozzi, C., Cecchini, J., Tylewicz, U., & Lotti, N. (2018). Characterization of Active Edible Films based on Citral Essential Oil, Alginate and Pectin. Materials, 11(10), 1980.
Tabet Zatla, A., Dib, M. E. A., Djabou, N., Ilias, F., Costa, J., & Muselli, A. (2017). Antifungal activities of essential oils and hydrosol extracts of Daucus carota subsp. sativus for the control of fungal pathogens, in particular gray rot of strawberry during storage. Journal of EssEntial Oil REsEarch, 29(5), 391–399.
Tongnuanchan, P., Benjakul, S., & Prodpran, T. (2014). Structural, morphological and thermal behaviour characterisations of fish gelatin film incorporated with basil and citronella essential oils as affected by surfactants. Food Hydrocolloids, 41, 33–43.
Tongnuanchan, P., Benjakul, S., Prodpran, T., Pisuchpen, S., & Osako, K. (2016). Mechanical, thermal and heat sealing properties of fish skin gelatin film containing palm oil and basil essential oil with different surfactants. Food Hydrocolloids, 56, 93–107.
Wu, J., Sun, X., Guo, X., Ge, S., & Zhang, Q. (2017). Physicochemical properties, antimicrobial activity and oil release of fish gelatin films incorporated with cinnamon essential oil. Aquaculture and Fisheries, 2(4), 185–192.