Modification of physicochemical and nutritional properties of gluten free cakes by natural additives application

Document Type : Review article


Department of Food Science and Technology, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


The demand for gluten-free products has increased in recent years, owing to the market trends and an increase in the number of celiac and other gluten sensitivities and wheat allergies. Products that contain gluten are also a major diet for a large portion of the world's population. For this reason, the development of gluten-free products is not only an urgent need for celiac patients but also a difficult task for food scientists. The preparation of gluten-free bakery products requires the use of different flours to replace the wheat flour, so the created taste often is not similar to the classic gluten contain products. The role of food technologists is to design such guidelines for gluten-free products that can improve their expansion, structure and taste, and it would help the people with celiac disease, to achieve their nutritional goals that make daily use of dietary fiber, minerals and other foods.
Flours such as rice (Orysa sativa), potato, corn (Zea mays) and gums, such as xanthan, guar, carrageenan, tara and locust beans and pseudocereal powders as quinoa, chia, amaranth are used in high quality gluten-free cakes. This review focuses on the finding suitable alternatives for gluten-free cakes to improve their baking and sensory quality and nutritional properties.


Al Shehry, G. A. (2016). Use of corn and quinoa flour to produce bakery products for celiac disease. Advances in Environmental Biology, 10(12), 237–244.
Alvarez-Jubete, L., Arendt, E. K., & Gallagher, E. (2009). Nutritive value and chemical composition of pseudocereals as gluten-free ingredients. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60(sup4), 240–257.
Bauman, E. (2008). Gluten Sensitivity: A Rising Concern.
Borneo, R., Aguirre, A., & León, A. E. (2010). Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 110(6), 946–949.
Bozdogan, N., Kumcuoglu, S., & Tavman, S. (2019). Investigation of the effects of using quinoa flour on gluten-free cake batters and cake properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(2), 683–694.
Bozdogan, N., Kumcuoglu, S., & Tavman, S. (2019). Investigation of the effects of using quinoa flour on gluten-free cake batters and cake properties. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(2), 683–694.
de la Hera, E., Martinez, M., Oliete, B., & Gómez, M. (2013). Influence of flour particle size on quality of gluten-free rice cakes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(9), 2280–2288.
El Khoury, D., Balfour-Ducharme, S., & Joye, I. J. (2018). A review on the gluten-free diet: technological and nutritional challenges. Nutrients, 10(10), 1410.
Gallagher, E., Gormley, T. R., & Arendt, E. K. (2004). Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(3–4), 143–152.
Gallagher, E. (2008). Formulation and nutritional aspects of gluten-free cereal products and infant foods. In Gluten-free cereal products and beverages (pp. 321–346). Elsevier.
Gambus, H., Mikulec, A., Gambus, F., & Pisulewski, P. (2004). Perspectives of linseed utilisation in baking. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 13(1), 21–27.
Gambus, H., Gambus, F., Pastuszka, D., Wrona, P., Ziobro, R., Sabat, R., … Sikora, M. (2009). Quality of gluten-free supplemented cakes and biscuits. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 60(sup4), 31–50.
Gao, Y., Janes, M. E., Chaiya, B., Brennan, M. A., Brennan, C. S., & Prinyawiwatkul, W. (2018). Gluten‐free bakery and pasta products: prevalence and quality improvement. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 53(1), 19–32.
Gomez, M., Moraleja, A., Oliete, B., Ruiz, E., & Caballero, P. A. (2010). Effect of fibre size on the quality of fibre-enriched layer cakes. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 43(1), 33–38.
Gomez, M., Ronda, F., Caballero, P. A., Blanco, C. A., & Rosell, C. M. (2007). Functionality of different hydrocolloids on the quality and shelf-life of yellow layer cakes. Food Hydrocolloids, 21(2), 167–173.
Gómez, M., Talegón, M., & De La Hera, E. (2013). Influence of mixing on quality of gluten‐free bread. Journal of Food Quality, 36(2), 139–145.
Gomez-Caravaca, A. M., Segura-Carretero, A., Fernandez-Gutierrez, A., & Caboni, M. F. (2011). Simultaneous determination of phenolic compounds and saponins in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) by a liquid chromatography–diode array detection–electrospray ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry methodology. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(20), 10815–10825.
Gorgônio, C. M. da S., Pumar, M., & Mothé, C. G. (2011). Macrocospic and physiochemical characterization of a sugarless and gluten-free cake enriched with fibers made from pumpkin seed (Cucurbita maxima, L.) flour and cornstarch. Food Science and Technology, 31(1), 109–118.
Grace-Farfaglia, P. (2015). Bones of contention: Bone mineral density recovery in celiac disease-A systematic review. Nutrients, 7(5), 3347–3369.
Gularte, M. A., de la Hera, E., Gomez, M., & Rosell, C. M. (2012). Effect of different fibers on batter and gluten-free layer cake properties. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 48(2), 209–214.
Gularte, M. A., Gómez, M., & Rosell, C. M. (2012). Impact of legume flours on quality and in vitro digestibility of starch and protein from gluten-free cakes. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(8), 3142–3150.
Herranz, B., Canet, W., Jiménez, M. J., Fuentes, R., & Alvarez, M. D. (2016). Characterisation of chickpea flour‐based gluten‐free batters and muffins with added biopolymers: rheological, physical and sensory properties. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(5), 1087–1098.
Hojjatoleslami, M., & Azizi, M. H. (2015). Impact of tragacanth and xanthan gums on the physical and textural characteristics of gluten-free cake. Nutrition and Food Sciences Research, 2(2), 29–37.
Jnawali, P., Kumar, V., & Tanwar, B. (2016). Celiac disease: Overview and considerations for development of gluten-free foods. Food Science and Human Wellness, 5(4), 169–176.
Kang, T., Sohn, K. H., Yoon, M., Lee, J., & Ko, S. (2015). Effect of the shape of rice starch granules on flour characteristics and gluten‐free bread quality. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50(8), 1743–1749.
Kaur, S., & Kaur, N. (2017). Development and sensory evaluation of gluten free bakery products using quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa) flour. Journal of Applied and Natural Science, 9(4), 2449–2455.
Kiskini, A., Argiri, K., Kalogeropoulos, M., Komaitis, M., Kostaropoulos, A., Mandala, I., & Kapsokefalou, M. (2007). Sensory characteristics and iron dialyzability of gluten-free bread fortified with iron. Food Chemistry, 102(1), 309–316.
Levent, H., & Bilgiçli, N. (2011). Effect of gluten-free flours on physical properties of cakes. Journal of Food Science and Engineering, 1(5), 354.
Levent, H. (2018). The effects of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) And quinoa flours on the quality of rice flour and starch based-cakes. Gida, 43(4), 644–654.
Levent, H., & Bilgiçli, N. (2011). Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 62(7), 725–728.
Majzoobi, M., Poor, Z. V., Jamalian, J., & Farahnaky, A. (2016). Improvement of the quality of gluten‐free sponge cake using different levels and particle sizes of carrot pomace powder. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(6), 1369–1377.
Marcet, I., Paredes, B., & Díaz, M. (2015). Egg yolk granules as low-cholesterol replacer of whole egg yolk in the preparation of gluten-free muffins. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 62(1), 613–619.
Marston, K., Khouryieh, H., & Aramouni, F. (2016). Effect of heat treatment of sorghum flour on the functional properties of gluten-free bread and cake. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 65, 637–644.
Matos, M. E., Sanz, T., & Rosell, C. M. (2014). Establishing the function of proteins on the rheological and quality properties of rice based gluten free muffins. Food Hydrocolloids, 35, 150–158.
Mir, N. A., Gul, K., & Riar, C. S. (2015). Technofunctional and Nutritional Characterization of Gluten‐Free Cakes Prepared from Water Chestnut Flours and Hydrocolloids. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 39(6), 978–984.
Nadeem, M., Abdullah, M., Khalique, A., Hussain, I., Mahmud, A., & Inayat, S. (2013). The effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract as antioxidant on stabilization of butter oil with modified fatty acid profile. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 15, 919-928.
Naqash, F., Gani, A., Gani, A., & Masoodi, F. A. (2017). Gluten-free baking: Combating the challenges-A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 66, 98–107.
Phimolsiripol, Y., Mukprasirt, A., & Schoenlechner, R. (2012). Quality improvement of rice-based gluten-free bread using different dietary fibre fractions of rice bran. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2), 389–395.
Pisarikova, B., Kracmar, S., & Herzig, I. (2005). Amino acid contents and biological value of protein in various amaranth species. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 50(4), 169–174.
Preichardt, L. D., Vendruscolo, C. T., Gularte, M. A., & Moreira, A. da S. (2011). The role of xanthan gum in the quality of gluten free cakes: improved bakery products for coeliac patients. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46(12), 2591–2597.
Rasmussen, P. H., & Hansen, A. (2001). Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 34(7), 487–491.
Rizzello, C. G., Curiel, J. A., Nionelli, L., Vincentini, O., Di Cagno, R., Silano, M., … Coda, R. (2014). Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten. Food Microbiology, 37, 59–68.
Ronda, F., Oliete, B., Gomez, M., Caballero, P. A., & Pando, V. (2011). Rheological study of layer cake batters made with soybean protein isolate and different starch sources. Journal of Food Engineering, 102(3), 272–277.
Ronda, F., Perez-Quirce, S., Lazaridou, A., & Biliaderis, C. G. (2015). Effect of barley and oat β-glucan concentrates on gluten-free rice-based doughs and bread characteristics. Food Hydrocolloids, 48, 197–207.
Santhanam, A. K., Lekshmi, M., Chouksey, M. K., Tripathi, G., & Gudipati, V. (2015). Delivery of omega-3 fatty acids into cake through emulsification of fish oil-in-milk and encapsulation by spray drying with added polymers. Drying Technology, 33(1), 83–91.
Sapone, A., Bai, J. C., Ciacci, C., Dolinsek, J., Green, P. H. R., Hadjivassiliou, M., … Schumann, M. (2012). Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification. BMC Medicine, 10(1), 13.
Sarawong, C., Gutierrez, Z. R., Berghofer, E., & Schoenlechner, R. (2014). Effect of green plantain flour addition to gluten‐free bread on functional bread properties and resistant starch content. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49(8), 1825–1833.
Shelke, K., Faubion, J. M., & Hoseney, R. C. (1990). The dynamics of cake baking as studied by a combination of viscometry and electrical resistance oven heating. Cereal Chemistry, 67(6), 575–580.
Shevkani, K., & Singh, N. (2014). Influence of kidney bean, field pea and amaranth protein isolates on the characteristics of starch‐based gluten‐free muffins. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 49(10), 2237–2244.
Shih, F. F., Truong, V. D., & Daigle, K. W. (2006). Physicochemical properties of gluten‐free pancakes from rice and sweet potato flours. Journal of Food Quality, 29(1), 97–107.
Simurina, O. D., Radunovic, A. Z., Filipcev, B. V, Jevtic-Mucibabic, R., Saric, L. C., & Soronja-Simovic, D. M. (2017). Quality improvement of gluten-free bread based on soybean and enriched with sugar beet molasses. Food and Feed Research, 44(1), 65–72.
Singh, J. P., Kaur, A., Shevkani, K., & Singh, N. (2015). Influence of jambolan (Syzygium cumini) and xanthan gum incorporation on the physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of gluten‐free eggless rice muffins. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 50(5), 1190–1197.
Singh, J. P., Kaur, A., & Singh, N. (2016). Development of eggless gluten-free rice muffins utilizing black carrot dietary fibre concentrate and xanthan gum. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(2), 1269–1278.
Sivaramakrishnan, H. P., Senge, B., & Chattopadhyay, P. K. (2004). Rheological properties of rice dough for making rice bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 62(1), 37–45.
Stikic, R., Glamoclija, D., Demin, M., Vucelic-Radovic, B., Jovanovic, Z., Milojkovic-Opsenica, D., … Milovanovic, M. (2012). Agronomical and nutritional evaluation of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) as an ingredient in bread formulations. Journal of Cereal Science, 55(2), 132–138.
Tambunan, B. A., Julianti, E., & Suhaidi, I. (2015). The making of gluten and egg free cake from composite flour of rice, cassava, potato starch, and soybean with the addition of hydrocolloid. Jurnal Rekayasa Pangan Dan Pertanian, 3(4), 471–481.
Tarpila, A., Wennberg, T., & Tarpila, S. (2005). Flaxseed as a functional food. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research, 3(3), 167.
Thompson, T., Dennis, M., Higgins, L. A., Lee, A. R., & Sharrett, M. K. (2005). Gluten‐free diet survey: are Americans with coeliac disease consuming recommended amounts of fibre, iron, calcium and grain foods? Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, 18(3), 163–169.
Tsatsaragkou, K., Papantoniou, M., & Mandala, I. (2015). Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten‐free rice cakes containing resistant starch. Journal of Food Science, 80(2), E341–E348.
Turabi, E., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2008). Rheological properties and quality of rice cakes formulated with different gums and an emulsifier blend. Food Hydrocolloids, 22(2), 305–312.
Turabi, E., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2010). Quantitative analysis of macro and micro-structure of gluten-free rice cakes containing different types of gums baked in different ovens. Food Hydrocolloids, 24(8), 755–762.
Ullah, R., Nadeem, M., Khalique, A., Imran, M., Mehmood, S., Javid, A., & Hussain, J. (2016). Nutritional and therapeutic perspectives of chia (Salvia hispanica L.): a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(4), 1750–1758.
Wijngaard, H., & Arendt, E. K. (2006). Buckwheat. Cereal Chemistry, 83(4), 391–401.
Wilderjans, E., Pareyt, B., Goesaert, H., Brijs, K., & Delcour, J. A. (2008). The role of gluten in a pound cake system: A model approach based on gluten–starch blends. Food Chemistry, 110(4), 909–915.
Witczak, M., Ziobro, R., Juszczak, L., & Korus, J. (2016). Starch and starch derivatives in gluten-free systems–A review. Journal of Cereal Science, 67, 46–57.
Xue, J., & Ngadi, M. (2006). Rheological properties of batter systems formulated using different flour combinations. Journal of Food Engineering, 77(2), 334–341.
Yildiz, O., & Dogan, I. S. (2014). Optimization of gluten-free cake prepared from chestnut flour and transglutaminase: Response surface methodology approach. International Journal of Food Engineering, 10(4), 737–746.