Improving the rheological properties of 18% wheat flour as affected by transglutaminase enzyme

Document Type : Original research


1 Agriculture Engineering-Food Sciences and industries, Islamic Azad University, Tehran North Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan Branch, Lahijan, Iran


Enzymes are useful to modify wheat proteins to preserve the gas better and to correct the rheological properties of the dough of weak flour and bread. Gluten proteins are highly impacting the quality of various gluten-based products, and transglutaminases (TGs) leading to the strengthening, stability and constancy of the dough as well as the improvement of the volume, texture and storage time of the bread. In the present study, the effect of transglutaminase enzyme on physicochemical and rheological properties of 18% wheat flour was examined as well as polymerization were achieved at the optimum mixing time. The use of transglutaminase (TG) has grown in popularity as they promote specific cross-linking between residues of glutamine and lysine in proteins and significantly increased the dough water absorption compared to the control sample. The results of bread staling  evaluation by a instrumental or by instron method showed that the required amount of compression of bread was significantly lower than other treatments during the third and fifth days (P <0.01). The results of the evaluation of gluten includes the use of heating and shear forces, which may impact gluten dough-forming ability, showed that the factors of form and shape, characteristics of the surface of bread, porosity, and bread score (qualitative number) were significantly higher than other treatments. Thus, increased understanding of the interplay of gluten functional and the impact of the TG origin in gluten dough functional properties is highly applicable in food industry.


AACC International. (2000). Approved methods of the American association of cereal chemists. Methods, 54, 21.
Aalami, M., & Leelavathi, K. (2008). Effect of microbial transglutaminase on spaghetti quality. Journal of food science, 73(5), C306-C312.
Armero, E., & Collar, C. (1996). Antistaling additives, flour type and sourdough process effects on functionality of wheat doughs. Journal of food science, 61(2), 299-303.
Babaei Aminlooie, A., & Salehifar, M. (2017). The effect of microbial transglutaminase and sodium caseinate on the recovery of damaged gluten meal in wheat flour. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 14, 63-72.
Basman, A., Köksel, H., & Ng, P. K. (2002). Effects of increasing levels of transglutaminase on the rheological properties and bread quality characteristics of two wheat flours. European Food Research and Technology, 215(5), 419-424.
Bauer, N., Koehler, P., Wieser, H., & Schieberle, P. (2003). Studies on effects of microbial transglutaminase on gluten proteins of wheat. II. Rheological properties. Cereal Chemistry, 80(6), 787-790.
Feyzipour, A., Ardebili, M., & Taslimi, A. (2004). Determination of falling number for barbari and lavash bread flour and its effect on the quality of breads produced. Quarterly Journal of Food Science and Technology, 1, 45-55.
Mohtarami, F., Esmaeili, M., AlizadehKhalidabad, M., & SayedinArdebili, S. (2015). Improving the physical and rheological properties of bread using two transglobulinase and asparaginase enzymes and whey powder and inulin. Journal of Research in Food Science and Technology of Iran, 11, 2445-2457.
Murtini, E. S. (2014). Effect of transglutaminase (Tg) on dough and bread containing wheat-soybean tempe flour (Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University).
Ortolan, F., & Steel, C. J. (2017). Protein characteristics that affect the quality of vital wheat gluten to be used in baking: A review. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(3), 369-381.
Pourmohammadi, K., Alaami, M., Shahedi, M., & SadiqiMahounak, A. (2010). Investigation on the effect of microbial transglutaminase enzyme on quality of wheat bread containing barley flour. Electronic Journal of Food Processing and Storage, 2, 81-97.
Rajab Zadeh, N. (1996). Bread technology. Tehran University Publication.
Rasheed, F., Plivelic, T. S., Kuktaite, R., Hedenqvist, M. S., & Johansson, E. (2018). Unraveling the structural puzzle of the giant glutenin polymer—An interplay between protein polymerization, nanomorphology, and functional properties in bioplastic films. ACS omega, 3(5), 5584-5592.
Shokri, F. (2013). Survey on the possibility of using microbial transglutaminase enzyme and hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose gum on production of gluten-free pasta. Shahre Qods Branch University.
Simurina, O. D., Popov, S. D., Filipcev, B. V., Dodic, J. M., Bodroza-Solarov, M. I., Demin, M., & Nježić, Z. B. (2014). Modelling the effects of transglutaminase and L-ascorbic acid on substandard quality wheat flour by response surface methodology. Chemical Industry and Chemical Engineering Quarterly, 20(4), 471-480.
Wang, F., Huang, W., Kim, Y., Liu, R., & Tilley, M. (2011). Effects of transglutaminase on the rheological and noodle-making characteristics of oat dough containing vital wheat gluten or egg albumin. Journal of Cereal Science, 54(1), 53-59.
Wouters, A. G., Rombouts, I., Lagrain, B., & Delcour, J. A. (2016). Impact of casein and egg white proteins on the structure of wheat gluten‐based protein‐rich food. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(3), 757-763.
Zelleny, L. (1974). A simple sedimentation test for estimating the bread-baking and gluten qualities of wheat flour. Cereal Chem., 24, 465-475.