The effect of whey protein-based edible coating containing natamycin and lysozyme-xanthan gum conjugate on the shelf life of ultrafiltrated white cheese

Document Type: Original research


1 Department of Food Science, College of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166614766, Iran

2 Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Van Yüzüncü Yıl University, 65080 Van, Turkey



The effect of whey protein concentrate based edible coating incorporating different concentrations of natamycin and lysozyme-xanthan gum conjugate on ultrafiltrated white cheese shelf life was investigated. Escherichia coli O157: H7 (as an indicator for gram negative bacteria), Staphylococcus aureus (as an indicator of gram-positive bacteria), and Penicillium chrysogenum (as a mold) were inoculated to the surface of experimental ultrafiltrated cheese samples followed by coating trials. The microbial, physicochemical, and organoleptic properties of cheese samples were evaluated during 60 days of ripening. The results showed that coating of cheese had inhibitory effect on growth of Penicillium chrysogenum. Natamycin-containing coatings were more effective in reducing the mold population than coatings incorporating lysozyme-xanthan. Coating with 600 ppm lysozyme-xanthan reduced 2.09 log E. coli O157:H7 growth compared to that of control (with no coating). Moreover, the populations of Staphylococcus aureus were lower in all coated samples containing lysozyme-xanthan than that of control. There was no significant difference (P> 0.05) between the pH, acidity, salt, and fat in the dry matter of the coated samples and those of the control sample during 60 days of ripening. Edible coatings reduced moisture loss in cheese (5.03%) during 60 days. Coating improved the textural properties of cheese samples, meanwhile did not have a significant effect (P > 0.05) on the taste and overall acceptance of cheese. The results of this study showed that whey protein based edible coating can be used as a carrier of natamycin and lysozyme-xanthan to increase the shelf life of ultrafiltrtated cheese.


Aminlari, M., Ramezani, R., & Jadidi, F. (2005). Effect of Maillard‐based conjugation with dextran on the functional properties of lysozyme and casein. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture85(15), 2617-2624.
Amiri, S., Ramezani, R., & Aminlari, M. (2008). Antibacterial activity of dextran-conjugated lysozyme against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in cheese curd. Journal of Food Protection71(2), 411-415.
AOAC International (1995). Official methods of analysis of AOAC international.
Ardö, Y., & Polychroniadou, A. (1999). Laboratory manual for chemical analysis of cheese: improvement of the quality of the production of raw milk cheeses. Publications Office.
Artiga-Artigas, M., Acevedo-Fani, A., & Martín-Belloso, O. (2017). Improving the shelf life of low-fat cut cheese using nanoemulsion-based edible coatings containing oregano essential oil and mandarin fiber. Food Control76, 1-12.
Bradley, R. L., Arnold, E., Barbano, D. M., Semerad, R. G., Smith, D.E., Vines, B. K., & Marshall, R. (1992). Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. Chemical and Physical Methods, p. 433.
Bryant, A., Ustunol, Z., & Steffe, J. (1995). Texture of Cheddar cheese as influenced by fat reduction. Journal of Food Science60(6), 1216-1219.
Bylund, G. (1995). Dairy processing handbook. Tetra Pak processing systems AB.
Cano Embuena, A. I., Cháfer Nácher, M., Chiralt Boix, A., Molina Pons, M. P., Borrás Llopis, M., Beltran Martínez, M. C., & González Martínez, C. (2017). Quality of goat′ s milk cheese as affected by coating with edible chitosan‐essential oil films. International Journal of Dairy Technology70(1), 68-76.
Cé, N., Noreña, C. P., & Brandelli, A. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of chitosan films containing nisin, peptide P34, and natamycin. CyTA-Journal of Food10(1), 21-26.
Crapisi, A., Lante, A., Pasini, G., & Spettoli, P. (1993). Enhanced microbial cell lysis by the use of lysozyme immobilized on different carriers. Process Biochemistry28(1), 17-21.
Del Nobile, M. A., Gammariello, D., Conte, A., & Attanasio, M. (2009). A combination of chitosan, coating and modified atmosphere packaging for prolonging Fior di latte cheese shelf life. Carbohydrate Polymers78(1), 151-156.
Delves-Broughton, J., Thomas, L. V., Doan, C. H., & Davidson, P. M. (2005). Natamycin. Food Science and Technology-New York-Marcel Dekker, 145, p. 275.
Dewanti, R., & Wong, A. C. (1995). Influence of culture conditions on biofilm formation by Escherichia coli O157: H7. International Journal of Food Microbiology26(2), 147-164.
Dickinson, E. (2003). Hydrocolloids at interfaces and the influence on the properties of dispersed systems. Food Hydrocolloids, 17(1), 25-39.
Duan, J., Kim, K., Daeschel, M. A., & Zhao, Y. (2008). Storability of antimicrobial chitosan‐lysozyme composite coating and film‐forming solutions. Journal of Food Science73(6), M321-M329.
Fajardo, P., Martins, J. T., Fuciños, C., Pastrana, L., Teixeira, J. A., & Vicente, A. A. (2010). Evaluation of a chitosan-based edible film as carrier of natamycin to improve the storability of Saloio cheese. Journal of Food Engineering101(4), 349-356.
Food, U. S. (2001). Bacteriological analytical manual online. http://www. cfsan. fda. gov/~ ebam/bam-toc. html.
Gunasekaran, S., & Ak, M. M. (2002). Cheese rheology and texture. CRC press.
Hannon, J. A., Deutsch, S. M., Madec, M. N., Gassi, J. Y., Chapot-Chartier, M. P., & Lortal, S. (2006). Lysis of starters in UF cheeses: behaviour of mesophilic lactococci and thermophilic lactobacilli. International Dairy Journal16(4), 324-334.
Hashemi, M. M., Aminlari, M., & Moosavinasab, M. (2014). Preparation of and studies on the functional properties and bactericidal activity of the lysozyme–xanthan gum conjugate. LWT-Food Science and Technology57(2), 594-602.
Hayaloglu, A. A., Guven, M., Fox, P. F., & McSweeney, P. L. H. (2005). Influence of starters on chemical, biochemical, and sensory changes in Turkish white-brined cheese during ripening. Journal of Dairy science88(10), 3460-3474.
Henriques, M., Santos, G., Rodrigues, A., Gomes, D. M. G. S., Pereira, C., & Gil, M. (2013). Replacement of conventional cheese coatings by natural whey protein edible coatings with antimicrobial activity. Journal of Hygienic Engineering and Design3, 34-47.
Hesari, J., Ehsani, M. R., Khosroshahi, A., & McSweeney, P. L. (2006). Contribution of rennet and starter to proteolysis in Iranian UF white cheese. Le Lait86(4), 291-302.
IDF (1989). Milk‐fat, Products and Butter. Determination of Fat Acidity. Standard 6B Brussel: International Dairy Federation, p.3.
IDF, M. (1993). Determination of the nitrogen (Kjeldahl method) and calculation of the crude protein content, IDF Standard 20B. International Dairy Federation, Brussels, Belgium.
ISIRI, Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran, 1998. Milk and dairy products—Cheese sensory evaluation test method. National Standard No. 4691.
Jalilzadeh, A., Hesari, J., Peighambardoust, S. H., & Javidipour, I. (2018). The effect of ultrasound treatment on microbial and physicochemical properties of Iranian ultrafiltered feta-type cheese. Journal of Dairy Science101(7), 5809-5820.
Kallinteri, L. D., Kostoula, O. K., & Savvaidis, I. N. (2013). Efficacy of nisin and/or natamycin to improve the shelf-life of Galotyri cheese. Food Microbiology36(2), 176-181.
Karami, M., Ehsani, M. R., Mousavi, S. M., Rezaei, K., & Safari, M. (2009). Changes in the rheological properties of Iranian UF-Feta cheese during ripening. Food Chemistry112(3), 539-544.
Kavas, N., Kavas, G., & Saygili, D. (2016). Use of ginger essential oil-fortified edible coatings in Kashar cheese and its effects on Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Staphylococcus aureusCyTA-Journal of Food14(2), 317-323.
McMahon, D. J., Alleyne, M. C., Fife, R. L., & Oberg, C. J. (1996). Use of fat replacers in low fat Mozzarella cheese. Journal of Dairy Science79(11), 1911-1921.
Medeiros, B. G. D. S., Souza, M. P., Pinheiro, A. C., Bourbon, A. I., Cerqueira, M. A., Vicente, A. A., & Carneiro-da-Cunha, M. G. (2014). Physical characterisation of an alginate/lysozyme nano-laminate coating and its evaluation on ‘Coalho’cheese shelf life. Food and Bioprocess Technology7(4), 1088-1098.
Mehyar, G. F., Al Nabulsi, A. A., Saleh, M., Olaimat, A. N., & Holley, R. A. (2018). Effects of chitosan coating containing lysozyme or natamycin on shelf‐life, microbial quality, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese brined in normal and reduced salt solutions. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42(1), e13324.
Pena-Serna, C., Penna, A. L. B., & Lopes Filho, J. F. (2016). Zein-based blend coatings: Impact on the quality of a model cheese of short ripening period. Journal of Food Engineering, 171, 208-213.
Pérez-Gago, M. B., & Krochta, J. M. (2002). Formation and properties of whey protein films and coatings. Protein-Based Films and Coatings, 159-180.
Pintado, C. M., Ferreira, M. A., & Sousa, I. (2010). Control of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms from cheese surface by whey protein films containing malic acid, nisin and natamycin. Food Control21(3), 240-246.
Ramos, Ó. L., Santos, A. C., Leão, M. V., Pereira, J. O., Silva, S. I., Fernandes, J. C., Franco, M. I., Pintado, M. E., & Malcata, F. X. (2012). Antimicrobial activity of edible coatings prepared from whey protein isolate and formulated with various antimicrobial agents. International Dairy Journal, 25(2), 132-141.
Rashidi, H., Razavi, S. M. A., Mazaheri-Tehrani, M., & Ghods-Rohany, M. (2015). Improving textural and sensory characteristics of low-fat uf feta cheese made with fat replacers. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 17, 121-132.              
Resa, C. P. O., Gerschenson, L. N., & Jagus, R. J. (2014). Natamycin and nisin supported on starch edible films for controlling mixed culture growth on model systems and Port Salut cheese. Food Control, 44, 146-151.
Robinson, R. K. (2014). Encyclopedia of food microbiology. Academic press.
Schmid, M., Hinz, L. V., Wild, F., & Noller, K. (2013). Effects of hydrolysed whey proteins on the techno-functional characteristics of whey protein-based films. Materials6(3), 927-940.
Ioanna, F., Quaglia, N. C., Storelli, M. M., Castiglia, D., Goffredo, E., Storelli, A., De Rosa, M., Normanno, G., Jambrenghi, A. C., & Dambrosio, A. (2018). Survival of Escherichia coli O157: H7 during the manufacture and ripening of Cacioricotta goat cheese. Food Microbiology, 70, 200-205.
Takahashi, K., Lou, X. F., Ishii, Y., & Hattori, M. (2000). Lysozyme− glucose stearic acid monoester conjugate formed through the maillard reaction as an antibacterial emulsifier. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry48(6), 2044-2049.
Tunick, M. H., Mackey, K. L., Smith, P. W., & Holsinger, V. H. (1991). Effects of composition and storage on the texture of Mozzarella cheese. Nederlands melk en Zuiveltijdschrift, 45(2), 117-125.
Yangılar, F., & Oğuzhan Yıldız, P. (2016). Casein/natamycin edible films efficiency for controlling mould growth and on microbiological, chemical and sensory properties during the ripening of Kashar cheese. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 96(7), 2328-2336.
Zhong, Y., Cavender, G., & Zhao, Y. (2014). Investigation of different coating application methods on the performance of edible coatings on Mozzarella cheese. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 56(1), 1-8.