Document Type : Original research

Authors

1 Ph.D Student of Food Science and Technology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad (FUM), Mashhad, Iran

2 Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

3 MSc Student of Novel Dairy Products Manufacture, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

In this study, the effect of different amounts of konjac gum (KG) (0 to 0.2%) and sage seed gum (SSG) (0 to 0.2%) as experimental variables of the mixture design and fat content (0 to 3%) and homogenization rate (0 to 24000 rpm) as experimental variables of the process design on the viscoelastic characteristics of low-fat stirred yogurt were investigated. Based on the results of stress sweep test for different samples, the storage modulus (G') had a value more than the loss modulus (G''), explaining a solid-like behavior of the samples. Also, according to the stress sweep test, G' LVE (G' at linear viscoelastic region), G'' LVE (G'' at linear viscoelastic region), γc (critical strain), τy (yield stress), τf (yield stress at flowing point), and Gf (elastic modulus at flowing point) of the samples were significantly increased, especially for samples containing higher sage seed gum, with increasing fat content and homogenization rate. To optimize the properties in this study, G" LVE were considered to be minimum and G' LVE, γc, τy and τf were considered to be maximum. According to the mentioned properties, the optimized amount of KG was 0.19%, the amount of SSG was 0.01%, the fat content was 0.59% and the homogenization rate was 12075 rpm.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Aguirre-Mandujano, E., Lobato-Calleros, C., Beristain, C. I., Garcia, H.S., & Vernon-Carter, E. J. (2009). Microstructure and viscoelastic properties of low-fat yoghurt structured by monoglyceride gels. Food Science and Technology, 42, 938-944.
Chua, M., Chan, K., Hocking, T. J., Williams, P. A., Perry, C. J., & Baldwin, T.C. (2012). Methodologies for the extraction and analysis of konjacglucomannan from corms of Amorphophalluskonjac K. Koch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(3), 2202-2210.
Clark, A. H., & Ross-Murphy, S. B. (1987). Structural and mechanical properties of biopolymer gels. Advance Polymer Science, 83, 57-192.
Dal Belloa, L.H.A., & Vieirab, A.F.C. (2011). Optimization of a product performance using mixture experiments including process variables, Journal of Applied Statistics, 38(8), 1701-1715.
Demirkesen, I., Mert, B., Sumnu, G., & Sahin, S. (2010). Rheological properties of gluten-free bread formulations. Journal of Food Engineering, 96, 295-303.
Dolz, M., Hernandez Delegido, J., Alfaro, M.C., & Munoz, J. (2007). Influence of xanthan gum and locust bean gum upon flow and thixotropic behavior of food emulsions containing modified starch. Journal of Food Engineering, 81, 179-186.
Farahnaky, A., Askari, H., Majzoobi, M. & Mesbahi, G. (2010). The impact of concentration, temperature and pH on dynamic rheology of psyllium gels. Journal of Food Engineering, 100, 294-301.
Guven, M., Yasar, K., Karaca, O.B., & Hayaloglu, A.A. (2005). The effect of inulin as a fat replacer on the quality of set type low, fat yogurt manufacture. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58 (3), 180-184
Heldman, D. R., & Lund, D.B. (2007). Handbook of Food Engineering, 2nd (Eds). (Pp. 12-15, 25-30, 36-40). New York, NY, USA, CRC Press.
Kashaninejad, M., Najaf Najafi, M., Ghods Rohani, M., & Kashaninejad, M. (2019). Optimization of labane (concentrated yogurt) formulation produced by wheyless process using mixture‐process variable experiments. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 43, e14193.
Kashaninejad, M., & Razavi, S.M.A. (2019). The effects of different gums and their interactions on the rheological properties of instant camel yogurt: a mixture design approach. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 13, 1299-1309.
Kayacier, A., & Dogan, M. (2006). Rheological properties of some gums-salep mixed solutions. Journal of Food Engineering, 72, 261-265.
Mandala, I., Kapetanakou, A., & Kostaropoulos, A. (2008). Physical properties of breads containing hydrocolloids stored at low temperature. II. Effect of freezing. Food Hydrocolloids, 22, 1443-1451.
Merrill, R. K., Oberg, C., & McMahon, D. (1994). A method for manufacturing reduced fat Mozzarella cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, 77, 1783-1789.
Naji-Tabasi, S., & Razavi, S. M. A. (2017). New studies on basil (Ocimum bacilicum L.) seed gum: Part III – Steady and dynamic shear rheology. Food Hydrocolloids, 67, 243-250.
Saleh, A., Mohamed, A. A., Alamri, M. S., Hussain, S., Qasem, A. A., & Ibraheem, M. A. (2020). Effect of Different Starches on the Rheological, Sensory and Storage Attributes of Non-fat Set Yogurt. Foods, 9, 61.
Ozer, B. H., Robinson, R. K., Grandison, A. S. & Bell, A. E. (1997). Comparison of Techniques for Measuring the Rheological Properties of Labneh (Concentrated Yogurt). International Journal of Dairy Technology, 50, 129-134.
Ozer, B. H., Stenning, R., Grandison, A. S., & Robinson, R. K. (1999). Rheology and microstructure of labneh (concentrated yoghurt), Journal of Dairy Science, 82, 682-689.
Pai, V.B., & Khan, S. A. (2002). Gelation and Rheology of xanthan/ enzyme-modified guar blends. Carbohydrate polymers, 49, 207-216.
Paulsson, M., & Dejmek, P. (1990). Rheological Properties of Heat-Induced -lactoglobulin gels. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 45– 53.
Perry, D. M., McMahon, D., & Oberg, C. (1997). Effect of exopolysaccharide producing cultures on moisture retention in low fat Mozzarella cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 799-805.
Prentice, J. H. (1992). Dairy Rheology, VCH Publishers, Inc.cambridge, England.
Purwandari, U., Shah, N. P., & Vasiljevic, T. (2007). Effects of exopolysaccharide producing strains of Streptococcus thermophilus on technological and rheological properties of set-type yoghurt. International Dairy Journal, 17, 1344-1352.
Razavi, S. M. A., HasanAbadi, M., Ghadiri, G. R., & Salehi, E. A. (2013). Rheological interaction of sage seed gum with xanthan in dilute solution. International Food Research Journal, 20(6), 3111-3116.
Rudan, M. A., Barbano, D. M., Yun, J. J., & Kindstedt, P. S. (1998). Effect the modification of fat Particle size by homogenization on composition, proteolysis, functionality and appearance of reduced fat Mozzarella cheese. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 2065-2076.
Sandoval-Castilla, O., Lobato-Calleros, C., Aguirre-Mandujano, E., & Vernon-Carter, E.J. (2003). Microstructure and texture of yogurt as influenced by fat replacers. International Dairy Journal, 14, 151-159.
Skriver, A., Holstborg, J., & Qvist, K. (1999). Relation between sensory texture analysis and rheological properties of stirred yogurt. Journal of Dairy Research, 66(4), 609-618.
Steffe, J. F. (1996). Rheological methods in food process engineering (pp. 17-23). East Lansing, MI. Freeman Press.
Tamime, A. Y., & Robinson, R. K.  (1985). Yoghurt: Science and Technology. Pergamon Press, London, United Kingdom.
 Tamime, A.Y., & Robinson, R.K. (1999). Yogurt science and Technology Woodhead Publishing Ltd and CRC Press Uc.
Walkenström, P., Kidman, S., Hermansson, A., Rasmussen, P.B., & Hoegh, L. (2003). Microstructure and rheological behaviour of xanthan/pectin mixed gels. Food Hydrocolloids, 17, 593-603.
Walstra, P.,  Geurts, T. J.,  Noomen, A., Jellema, A., & van Boekel, M. A. J. S. (1999). Dairy Technology—Principles of Milk Properties and Processes, Marcel Dekker, New York
Zhang, L., Xue, Y., Xu, J., Li, Z., & Xue, C. (2015). Effects of deacetylation of konjac glucomannan on Alaska Pollock surimi gels subjected to high-temperature (120 ̊C) treatment, Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 125-131.