Document Type : Original research


1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Associate professor, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran

2 Department of Food Science and Technology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab, India


The fermented whey protein concentrate (FWPC) and whey permeate (WP) at the levels of 0 (control), 25, 50, 75 and 100% were separately substituted instead of water (v/v) used for dough preparation in bread loaf making. The effect of incorporation of WP or FWPC was measured on dough properties (falling number, dough handling and water absorption) and bread making quality (loaf volume, loaf height, specific volume and baking loss). The results clearly showed that incorporation of increasing amount of WP and FWPC had contrary effect on falling number and significantly reduced and increased falling number values, respectively. Incorporation of WP and FWPC at increasing levels during dough preparation showed significant increase in water absorption in comparison to control and handling of dough for all treatments was smooth except for samples contain 100% FWPC which the dough was slightly sticky. Increasing WP up to 50% increased volume, height and specific volume of loaves (p>0.05) and thereafter slightly reduced it, while increasing the level of FWPC, except at level 25%, progressively decreased these parameters (p < 0.05). Independent of whey type (WP or FWPC) and incorporation levels, baking loss of bread decreased significantly with WP or FWPC fortification compared to the control, indicating higher moisture retained in supplemented breads. Based on results of this study, by incorporation of 50% WP or 25% FWPC, a loaf bread could be produced with the appropriate dough properties (with smooth and flexible texture) and baking qualities (acceptable loaf volume and baking loss).


Main Subjects

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