Document Type : Original research

Authors

1 Department of Food Science and Technology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Industrial and Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

Abstract

Agrimonia eupatoria (AE) is commonly used as a medicinal plant in Iran. In this study, microwave and ultrasound-assisted extraction (MAE and UAE) methods have been developed to extract phenolic compounds from AE. In addition, the impact of operational variables such as the solvent composition (ethanol and water), microwave and ultrasonic power, and extraction time on the content of total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AA) was evaluated through response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions of MAE were as follows: microwave power was 200 W, extraction time was 15 min and ratio of ethanol to water was 0.78 v/v. Under these conditions, the maximum content of TPC and AA were 326.11 mg GAE/100g and 52.25% respectively. The maximum amount of TPC in UAE method was 355.12 mg GAE/100g. Antioxidant activity of about 75.92% was also achieved. The optimum extraction ultrasonic power, time and ratio of ethanol to water were defined as 100 W, 41.82 min and 1.17 v/v, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of five different types of phenolic compounds, namely chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, cumaric acid and apigenin in the MAE and UAE extracts. The results indicated UAE was more efficient than the MAE to extract phenolic compounds from AE.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Balasundram, N., Sundram, K., & Samman, S. (2006). Phenolic compounds in plants and agri-industrial by-products: antioxidant activity, occurrence, and potential uses. Food Chemistry, 99, 191- 203.
Ballard, T. S., Mallikarjunan, P., Zhou, K. & O’keefe, S. (2010). Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic antioxidant compounds from peanut skins. Food Chemistry, 120, 1185-1192.
Barnes, J., Anderson, L., & Phillipson, J. (1996). Herbal Medicines-A Guide of Health-Care Professionals. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press.
Brochier, B., Mercali, G. D., & Marczak, L. D. F. (2016). Influence of moderate electric field on inactivation kinetics of peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase and on phenolic compounds of sugarcane juice treated by ohmic heating. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 74, 396-403.
Cheynier, V. (2012). Phenolic compounds: from plants to foods. Phytochemistry reviews, 11(2), 153-177.
Chirinos, R., Rogez, H., Campos, D., Pedreschi, R., & Larondelle, Y. (2007). Optimization of extraction conditions of antioxidant phenolic compounds from mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum Ruíz & Pavón) tubers. Separation and Purification Technology, 55(2), 217-225.
Da Rocha, C. B., & Noreña, C. P. Z. (2020). Microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasound-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from grape pomace. International Journal of Food Engineering16(1-2).
De Guiné, R. P. F., & Barroca, M. J. (2014). Mass transfer properties for the drying of pears. Transactions on Engineering Technologies (pp. 271-280): Springer.
Dhanani, T., Shah, S., Gajbhiye, N., & Kumar, S. (2017). Effect of extraction methods on yield, phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Withania somnifera. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, S1193-S1199.
El Darra, N., Grimi, N., Vorobiev, E., Louka, N., & Maroun, R. (2013). Extraction of polyphenols from red grape pomace assisted by pulsed ohmic heating. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6, 1281-1289.
Galvez, A., Di Scala, K., Rodriguez, K., Mondaca, R.L., Miranda, M., Lopez, J., & Perez-Wan, M. (2007). Effect of air-drying temperature on physico-chemical properties, antioxidant capacity, colour and total phenolic content of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. Hungarian). Journal of Food Chemistry, 117, 647–653.
Horzic, D., Jambrak, A.R., Belscak-Cvitanovic, A., Komes, D., & Lelas, V. (2012). Comparison of conventional and ultrasound assisted extraction techniques of yellow tea and bioactive composition of obtained extracts. Food Bioprocess Technology, 5, 2858–2870.
Hossain, M., Barry-Ryan, C., Martin-Diana, A. B., & Brunton, N. (2011). Optimisation of accelerated solvent extraction of antioxidant compounds from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), marjoram (Origanum majorana L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 126, 339-346.
Katsinas, N., Bento da Silva, A., Enríquez-de-Salamanca, A., Fernández, N., Bronze, M. R., & Rodríguez-Rojo, S. (2021). Pressurized liquid extraction optimization from supercritical defatted olive pomace: A green and selective phenolic extraction process. ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering9(16), 5590-5602.
Lapornik, B., Prošek, M., & Wondra, A. G. (2005). Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time. Journal of food engineering, 71(2), 214-222.
Lee, W. C., Yusof, S., Hamid, N. S. A., & Baharin B. S. (2006). Optimizing conditions for hot water extraction of banana juice using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of Food Engineering, 75, 473–479.
Li, Y., Li, S., Lin, S., Zhao, J., & Li, H. (2017). Microwave-assisted extraction of natural antioxidants from the exotic Gordonia axillaris fruit: optimization and identification of phenolic compounds. Molecules, 22, 1481.
Maran, J. P., Manikandan, S., Nivetha, C. V., & Dinesh, R. (2017). Ultrasound assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from Nephelium lappaceum L. fruit peel using central composite face centered response surface design. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 10, S1145-S1157.
Martino, E., Ramaiola, I., Urbano, M., Bracco, F., & Collina, S. (2006). Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis L. pallas as an alternative to soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Journal of Chromatography A, 1125(2), 147-151.
Pan, X., Niu, G., & Liu, H. (2003). Microwave-assisted extraction of tea polyphenols and tea caffeine from green tea leaves. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 42(2), 129-133.
Prasad, N. K., Divakar, S., Shivamurthy, G. R., & Aradhya, S. M. (2005). Isolation of a free radical scavenging antioxidant from water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 85, 1461–1468.
Proestos, C., & Komaitis, M. (2008). Application of microwave-assisted extraction to the fast extraction of plant phenolic compounds. LWT-food science and technology, 41(4), 652-659.
Rajaei, A., Barzegar, M., Hamidi, Z., & Sahari M. A. (2010). Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Phenolic Compounds from Pistachio (Pistachia vera) Green Hull through Response Surface Method. Journal of Agriculture Science and Technology, 12, 605-615.
Rodrigues, S., Pinto, G. A., & Fernandes, F. A. (2008). Optimization of ultrasound extraction of phenolic compounds from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell powder by response surface methodology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 15(1), 95-100.
Santos, T. N., Costa, G., Ferreira, J. P., Liberal, J., Francisco, V., Paranhos, A., ... & Batista, M. T. (2017). Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of Agrimonia eupatoria L. infusion. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2017.
Savic Gajic, I., Savic, I., Boskov, I., Žerajić, S., Markovic, I., & Gajic, D. (2019). Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from black locust (Robiniae Pseudoacaciae) flowers and comparison with conventional methods. Antioxidants, 8(8), 248.
Shahidi, B., Sharifi, A., Nasiraie, L. R., Niakousari, M., & Ahmadi, M. (2020). Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of flixweed (Descurainia sophia) seeds extracts: Ranking extraction systems based on fuzzy logic method. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy16, 100245.
Sharifi, A., Niakousari, M., Mortazavi, S.A., & Elhamirad, A.H. (2019). High-pressure CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds of barberry fruit (Berberis vulgaris): Process optimization and compounds characterization. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 13(2), 1139–1146.
Sharifi, A., & Khoshnoudi-Nia, S. (2022). Ranking novel extraction systems of seedless barberry (Berberis Vulgaris) bioactive compounds with fuzzy logic-based term weighting scheme. Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy25, 100561.
Sutivisedsak, N., Cheng, H. N., Willett, J. L., Lesch, W. C., Tangsrud, R. R., & Biswas, A. (2010). Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolics from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Food Research International, 43(2), 516-519.
Suzuki, M., Watanabe, T., Miura, A., Harashima, E., Nakagawa, Y., & Tsuji, K. (2002). An extraction solvent optimum for analyzing polyphenol contents by Folin-Denis assay. Journal of the Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology (Japan).
Svarc-Gajic, J., Stojanovic, Z., Carretero, A.S., Román, D. A., Borrás, I., & Vasiljevic, I. (2013). Development of a microwave-assisted extraction for the analysis of phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis. Journal of Food Engineering, 119, 525–532.
Thabti, I., Elfalleh, W., Hannachi, H., Ferchichi, A., & Graca Campos, M. D. (2012). Identification and quantification of phenolic acids and flavonol glycosides in Tunisian Morus species by HPLC-DAD and HPLC–MS. Journal of Functional Foods, 4, 367– 374.
Tsai, C. C., Chou, C. H., Liu Y. C., & Hsieh, C. W. (2014). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Phyllanthus emblica L. and evaluation of antioxidant activities. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 36, 471–476
Vatai, T., Skerget, M., & Knez, Z. (2009). Extraction of phenolic compounds from elder berry and different grape marc varieties using organic solvents and/or supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of Food Engineering, 90, 246-254.
Watkins, F., Pendry, B., Sanchez-Medina, A., & Corcoran, O. (2012). Antimicrobial assays of three native British plants used in Anglo-Saxon medicine for wound healing formulations in 10th century England Original Research Article Pages 408-415. Journal of Ethnopharmacology144(2), 225–456. 
Xu, J., Hou, H., Hu, J., & Liu, B. (2018). Optimized microwave extraction, characterization and antioxidant capacity of biological polysaccharides from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver leaf. Scientific Reports, 8, 6561.
Yingngam, B., Monschein, M., & Brantner, A. (2014). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from Cratoxylum formosum ssp. formosum leaves using central composite design and evaluation of its protective ability against H2O2-induced cell death. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, 17, S497-S505.