Document Type : Original research

Authors

Department of Chemical Engineering, Jundi-Shapur University of Technology, Dezful, Iran

Abstract

Today, the discussion of droplet-fluid interaction is one of the most challenging topics in multiphase (liquid-liquid) flows. In the present study, the behavior of two edible oils (olive oil and canola oil) droplets during the rising in the static fluid of water and passing through the water-oil interface was experimentally investigated. Droplet diameters were controlled in the range of 3.8 to 5.6 mm. First of all, the range of dimensionless numbers was compared to experimental data from other researchers and validated. The results revealed that the droplet shape is elliptical, and that the Weber number decreases in the range of 1 to 2, as the aspect ratio increases. Furthermore, the droplet residence time at the two-phase interface was measured, and the parameters that affected it were examined. Although the results showed that the residence time did not follow a consistent pattern, the conclusion was not far off. Weber dimensionless number was used to introduce hydrodynamic forces and internal surface tension of the droplets. It was shown that none of the theoretical relationships can accurately or even roughly predict the residence time of the oil droplets. Finally, the Weber number has been proven to be dependent on the droplet terminal velocity. Terminal velocity increases with the Weber number and the equivalent diameter.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Asokapandian, S., Sreelakshmi, S. & Rajamanickam, G., (2021). Lipids and Oils: An Overview. Food biopolymers: Structural, functional and nutraceutical properties, 389-411.
Azizi, Z., (2017). Experimental investigation of terminal velocity and Sherwood number of rising droplet in an extraction column. Heat and Mass Transfer, 53, 3027-3035.
Blanchette, F. & Bigioni, T. P., (2009). Dynamics of drop coalescence at fluid interfaces. Journal of fluid mechanics, 620, 333.
Borzì, A. M., Biondi, A., Basile, F., Luca, S., Vicari, E. S. D. & Vacante, M., (2019). Olive oil effects on colorectal cancer. Nutrients, 11, 32.
Brakstad, O. G., Nordtug, T. & Throne-Holst, M., (2015). Biodegradation of dispersed Macondo oil in seawater at low temperature and different oil droplet sizes. Marine pollution bulletin, 93, 144-152.
Charles, G. & Mason, S., (1960). The mechanism of partial coalescence of liquid drops at liquid/liquid interfaces. Journal of Colloid Science, 15, 105-122.
Clift, R., Grace, J. & Weber, M., (1978). Bubbles, Drops and Particles. 5.
Cockbain, E. & McRoberts, T., (1953). The stability of elementary emulsion drops and emulsions. Journal of Colloid Science, 8, 440-451.
Deng, C., Huang, W., Wang, H., Cheng, S., He, X. & Xu, B., (2018). Preparation of micron-sized droplets and their hydrodynamic behavior in quiescent water. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 35, 709-720.
Dong, T., Wang, F., Weheliye, W. H. & Angeli, P., (2020). Surfing of drops on moving liquid–liquid interfaces. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 892.
Gopinath, A. & Koch, D. L., (2002). Collision and rebound of small droplets in an incompressible continuum gas. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 454, 145- 201.
Gorzynik-Debicka, M., Przychodzen, P., Cappello, F., Kuban-Jankowska, A., Marino Gammazza, A., Knap, N., Wozniak, M. & Gorska-Ponikowska, M., (2018). Potential health benefits of olive oil and plant polyphenols. International journal of molecular sciences, 19, 686.
Grace, J., (1973). Shapes and velocities of bubbles rising in infinite liquid. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, 51, 116-120.
Grace, J. R. (1976). Shapes and velocities of single drops and bubbles moving freely through immiscible liquids. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers (English), 54, 167-174.
Hartland, S. )1988(. Coalescence in Dense Packed Dispersion, Ivanov, IB, Ed., in “Thin Liquid Films”. Marcel Dekker, New York.
Hennenberg, M., Bisch, P. M., Vignes-Adler, M. & Sanfeld, A., (1979). Mass transfer, Marangoni effect, and instability of interfacial longitudinal waves: I. Diffusional exchanges. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 69, 128-137.
Hennenberg, M., Bisch, P. M., Vignes-Adler, M. & Sanfeld, A., (1980). Mass transfer, marangoni effect, and instability of interfacial longitudinal waves. II. Diffusional exchanges and adsorption—desorption processes. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 74, 495-508.
Jeffreys, G. V., & Davies, G. A. (1971). Coalescence of liquid droplets and liquid dispersion. In Recent Advances in Liquid–Liquid Extraction (pp. 495-584). Pergamon.
Karimi, S., Abiri, A., Shafiee, M. & Mohamadzadeh, N., (2020). Experimental Study on a Rising Oil Droplet through a Water-Oil Interface. Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 51, 361-368.
Karimi, S., Shafiee, M., Abiri, A. & Ghadam, F., (2019). The drag coefficient prediction of a rising bubble through a non-Newtonian fluid. Amirkabir Journal of Mechanical Engineering, 52, 71-80.
Karimi, S., Shafiee, M., Ghadam, F., Abiri, A. & Abbasi, H., (2020). Experimental study on drag coefficient of a rising bubble in the presence of rhamnolipid as a biosurfactant. Journal of Dispersion Science and Technology, 42, 835-845.
Khadiv, P. P. & Mousavian, S. M. A., (2004). Suggestion of new correlations for drop/interface coalescent phenomena in the and absence and presence of single surfactant. Iranian Journal of  Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 23, 79-88.
Komrakova, A. E., (2019). Single drop breakup in turbulent flow. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 97, 2727-2739.
Kurimoto, R., Hayashi, K. & Tomiyama, A., (2013). Terminal velocities of clean and fully-contaminated drops in vertical pipes. International journal of multiphase flow, 49, 8-23.
Laddha, G. & Degaleesan, T., (1983). Dispersion and coalescence. TC Lo, MHI Baird, C. Hanson, ed.
Linton, M. & Sutherland, K., (1956). The coalescence of liquid drops. Journal of Colloid Science, 11, 391-397.
Mao, N., Kang, C., Teng, S. & Mulbah, C., (2020). Formation and detachment of the enclosing water film as a bubble passes through the water-oil interface. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 586, 124236.
Marcus, J. B. (2013). Culinary nutrition: the science and practice of healthy cooking. Academic Press.
Mohamed-Kassim, Z. & Longmire, E. K., (2003). Drop impact on a liquid–liquid interface. Physics of Fluids, 15, 3263-3273.
Mottola, M., Caruso, B. & Perillo, M. A., (2019). Langmuir films at the oil/water interface revisited. Scientific reports, 9, 1-13.
Nakache, E., Dupeyrat, M. & Vignes-Adler, M., (1983). Experimental and theoretical study of an interfacial instability at some oil—Water interfaces involving a surface-active agent: I. Physicochemical description and outlines for a theoretical approach. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 94, 187-200.
Psaltopoulou, T., Kosti, R. I., Haidopoulos, D., Dimopoulos, M. & Panagiotakos, D. B., (2011). Olive oil intake is inversely related to cancer prevalence: a systematic review and a meta-analysis of 13800 patients and 23340 controls in 19 observational studies. Lipids in health and disease, 10, 1-16.
Rao, A., Reddy, R. K., Ehrenhauser, F., Nandakumar, K., Thibodeaux, L. J., Rao, D. & Valsaraj, K. T., (2014). Effect of surfactant on the dynamics of a crude oil droplet in water column: Experimental and numerical investigation. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 92, 2098-2114.
Reynolds, O., (1881). On the floating of drops on the surface of water depending only on the purity of the surface. Proc. Lit. Phil. Soc. Manchester, 21.
Sinegribova, O. A., Andreev, A. Y., Voronin, O. V., Dvoeglazov, K. N., & Logsdail, D. (1993). The Influence of Silicic Acid on the Coalescence of Drop in the Extraction System TBP-HNO3 (HCl). in Solvent Extraction in the Process Industries, 3.
Singh, K. & Bart, H.-J., (2020). Passage of a bubble through the interface between a shear-thinning heavier liquid and a Newtonian lighter liquid. Chemical Engineering Communications, 207, 790-807.
Singh, K., Gebauer, F. & Bart, H. J., (2017). Bouncing of a bubble at a liquid–liquid interface. AIChE Journal, 63, 3150-3157.
Slavtchev, S., Hennenberg, M., Legros, J.-C. & Lebon, G., (1998). Stationary solutal Marangoni instability in a two-layer system. Journal of colloid and interface science, 203, 354-368.
Slavtchev, S., Kalitzova-Kurteva, P. & Mendes, M., (2006). Marangoni instability of liquid–liquid systems with a surface-active solute. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 282, 37-49.
Slavtchev, S. & Mendes, M., (2004). Marangoni instability in binary liquid–liquid systems. International journal of heat and mass transfer, 47, 3269-3278.
Stark, A. H., & Madar, Z. (2021). Olive oil in the prevention of breast and colon carcinogenesis. In Olives and Olive Oil in Health and Disease Prevention (pp. 337-345). Academic Press.
Sternling, C. a. & Scriven, L., (1959). Interfacial turbulence: hydrodynamic instability and the Marangoni effect. AIChE Journal, 5, 514-523.
Wang, S., Zhang, Y., Meredith, J. C., Behrens, S. H., Tripathi, M. K. & Sahu, K. C., (2018). The dynamics of rising oil-coated bubbles: experiments and simulations. Soft matter, 14, 2724-2734.
Wierzba, A., (1990). Deformation and breakup of liquid drops in a gas stream at nearly critical Weber numbers. Experiments in fluids, 9, 59-64.
Zawala, J., Krasowska, M., Dabros, T. & Malysa, K., (2007). Influence of bubble kinetic energy on its bouncing during collisions with various interfaces. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 85, 669-678.
Zhang, C., Zhou, D., Sa, R. & Wu, Q., (2018). Investigation of single bubble rising velocity in LBE by transparent liquids similarity experiments. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 108, 204-213.
Zheng, K., Li, C., Yan, X., Zhang, H. & Wang, L., (2020). Prediction of bubble terminal velocity in surfactant aqueous solutions. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 98, 607-615.