Document Type : Original research

Authors

1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Sabzevar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sabzavar, Iran

2 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Industrial & Mechanical Engineering, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Department of Food Science & Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

Abstract

Investigating the physicochemical and rheological properties of sugar syrups is important in specifying their usage in the food and beverage industries. In this study, some of the physicochemical properties of sugarcane syrup (72 °Brix at 25 ℃), including specific gravity, ash content, sugar content, soluble solids content, acidity, and pH were determined. Results showed the following average values: 4.266 for specific gravity, 1.4% for ash content, 57.25 (g/100 g) for sugar content, 77.8 (g/100g) for soluble solids content, 0.32% (Glycolic acid) for acidity, and 4.88 for pH. The rheological properties of sugarcane syrup were also measured using a rotational viscometer at three temperature levels (25, 45, and 65 ℃) and concentrations of 35, 55, and 72 °Brix. The power-law model describes well the rheological behavior of sugarcane syrup. According to the results based on Mitchka method, sugarcane syrup is a non-Newtonian, shear-thickening (Dilatants) fluid. The consistency coefficient (k) varied between 2075.58 and 194852.86 Pa sn. Furthermore, the dependence of the consistency coefficient on temperature was evaluated by the Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was found between 23695.75 to 42402.93 KJ/mol. Finally, the relationship between the consistency coefficient and concentration was evaluated using the exponential model (R2 = 0.9925).

Keywords

Main Subjects

Abdel-Aleem, W. M. (2020). Effect of sugarcane juice pre-treatment on the quality and crystallization of sugarcane syrup (Treacle). Journal of Food Processing and Technology, 11(7), 834.
Agha Farmani, B., Haddade khodaparast, M. H. Hesari, J., & Rezaii Iraqi, E. (2006). Refining of raw sugarcane juice using bentonite: Detemination of optimum quantity of gelatin, time and temperature of process with bentonite. Iranian Food Science and Technology Association (IFSTA), 2(1), 63-75.
Alhamdan, A. M. (2002). Rheological properties of a newly nutritious dairy drink from milk and date extract concentrate (Dibbs). International journal of food Properties, 5(1), 113 – 126.  
Alpaslan, M., & Hayta, M. (2002). Rheological and sensory properties of pekmez (grape molasses) / tahin sesame paste blends. Journal of Food Engineering, 54, 89–93
AOAC. (2000). Official Methods of Analysis. (17th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc. Arlington, VA.
Arslan, E., Yener, M. E., & Esin, A. (2005). Rheological characterization of tahin/pekmez (sesame paste/concentrated grape juice) blends. Journal of Food Engineering, 69, 167–172.
Asikin, Y., Wada, K., Imai, Y., Kawamoto, Y., Mizu, M., Mutsuura, M., & Takahashi, M. (2017). Compositions, taste characteristics, volatile profiles, and antioxidant activities of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) syrups. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 12, 884-891.
Batu, A. (2005). Production of liquid and white solid pekmez in Turkey. Journal of Food Quality, 28: 417-427.
Clarke M.A. (2003). Syrups. In: Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier Science, pp. 5711-5717.
Deshmukh, P. S., Manjunatha, S., & Raju, P. (2015). Rheological behaviour of enzyme clarified sapota (Achras sapota L) juice at different concentration and temperatures. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52, 1896–1910.
Eggleston, G., Monge, A., & Pepperman, A. (2002). Preheating and incubation of cane juice prior to liming: a comprison of intermediate and cold lime clarification. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50, 484-490.
Golafshani, S., & Tavakolipour, H. (2008). Modeling of adsorption process in grape molasses production. MSc thesis of Food Science and Technology, IAUS. (In Persian).
Habibi Najafi, M.B., & Alaei, Z. (2006). Rheological properties of date syrup/sesame paste blend. World Journal of Dairy and Food Sciences, 1(1), 01 – 05.
Kaya, A., & Belibagli, K.B. (2002). Rheology of solid Gaziantep pekmez. Journal of Food Engineering, 54, 221-22.
Mohammadzadeh Milani, J., Naghavi, E.A., Golkar A., & Khosravi, T. (2019). Rheological behavior of different phases of grape molasses after storage: Effect of concentration and temperature. Journal of Food Process and Preservation, 43(8), e14013.
Özkal, S.G., & Süren, F. (2017). Rheological properties of poppy seed paste/grape pekmez blends. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 41, e13255.
Papini-Terzi, F.S., Rocha, F.R., Vêncio, R.Z.N., et al. (2009). Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content. BMC Genomics, 10, 120.
Silvia, A. V., Silvia, H. P., & Maria C. F.  (2006). Polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons in sugar cane juice produced with burnt and not-burnt sugar cane. Journal of Food Chemistry, 164, S269–S270.
Simsek, A., Artik, N., & Baspinar, E. (2004). Detection of raisin concentrates (Pekmez) adulteration by regression analysis method. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 17, 155–163.
Steffe, J. (1996). Rheological methods in food process engineering. Freeman Press, New York, USA.
Tavakolipour, H., & Kalbasi Ashtari, A. (2013). Determination of rheological properties of grape molasses. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40, 129-137. (In Persian).
UNICAMP. (2011) – Tabela brasileira de composição de alimentos – TACO. (4th ed.). Campinas: UNICAMP / NEPA. 161p.
Vicentini-Polette, C. M., Belé, J. S. A. H., Borges, M. T. M. R., Spoto, M. H. F., & Verruma-Bernardi, M. R. (2019). Physicochemical and sensorial characterization of commercial sugarcane syrups. Revista de Ciências Agrárias, 42(3), 808-816.
Yoğurtçu, H., & Kamışlı, F. (2005). Determination of rheological properties of some pekmez samples in Turkey. Journal of Food Engineering, 54, 89–96.
Yosefzadeh Sani, S., Sharifi, A., & Mortazavi, S. A. (2018). Rheological properties of watermelon juice as affected by concentration. Malaysian Journal of Science, 37, 1-9.
Zuritz, C. A., Puntes, E. M.,  Mathey, H. H., Pérez, E. H., Gascón, A., Rubio, L. A., Carullo, C. A., Chernikoff, R. E., & Cabeza, M. S. (2005). Density, viscosity and coefficient of thermal expansion of clear grape juice at different soluble solid concentrations and temperatures. Journal of Food Engineering, 71, 143-149.