Document Type : Review article

Authors

1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Production & Technology of Herbal Medicines Research Center, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

2 Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia

10.22059/jfabe.2022.345145.1122

Abstract

Cheese is one of the dairy products that have an important role in a family’s food basket. Different types of cheese are produced in the world. In Iran, Lighvan cheese is very popular among people due to its special flavor, but the produced whey from this type of cheese is discarded. Due to its high biological oxygen demand (BOD), whey has a detrimental effect on the environment, and providing solutions to reduce these effects can pave the way for the cheese industry, especially Lighvan cheese. One of the proposed solutions is to produce wheyless cheese. Some studies have been done in this field, if the method of producing cheese without whey does not reduce the unique features of Lighvan cheese it could be a very suitable option for producing this type of popular cheese. So, in this study, we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of various aspects of Lighvan cheese, environmental disadvantages of whey, and methods of reduction of its destructive effects including the production of wheyless cheese.

Keywords

Main Subjects

Aguirre-Villegas, H. A., Milani, F. X., Kraatz, S., & Reinemann, D. J. (2012). Life cycle impact assessment and allocation methods development for cheese and whey processing. Transactions of the ASABE55(2), 613-627.
Amaro, T. M., Rosa, D., Comi, G., & Iacumin, L. (2019). Prospects for the use of whey for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. Frontiers in Microbiology10, 992.
Argenta, A. B., & Scheer, A. D. P. (2020). Membrane separation processes applied to whey: A review. Food Reviews International36(5), 499-528.
Ben-Hassan, R. M., & Ghaly, A. E. (1995). Continuous production of single cell protein from cheese whey lactose using Kluyveromyces fragilisTransactions of the ASAE38(4), 1121-1127.
Canellada, F., Laca, A., Laca, A., & Díaz, M. (2018). Environmental impact of cheese production: A case study of a small-scale factory in southern Europe and global overview of carbon footprint. Science of the total Environment635, 167-177.
Chandra, R., Castillo-Zacarias, C., Delgado, P., & Parra-Saldívar, R. (2018). A biorefinery approach for dairy wastewater treatment and product recovery towards establishing a biorefinery complexity index. Journal of Cleaner Production183, 1184-1196.
Edalatian Dovom, M. R., Habibi Najafi, M. B., Mortazavi, S. A., Nassiri, M., Bassami, M. R., & Hashemi, M. (2010, July). Isolation and Identification the indigenous Lactic Flora from Lighvan, as an Irania Raw Milk Cheese from Milk and Ripend Cheese. In 2010 International Conference on Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Ehsani, A., Hashemi, M., Afshari, A., & Aminzare, M. (2018). Probiotic white cheese production using coculture with Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses. Veterinary world11(5), 726-730.
FAO, 2017. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: www.fao.org/ (accessed 17 January 2018).
Fitzpatrick, J. J., Ahrens, M., & Smith, S. (2001). Effect of manganese on Lactobacillus casei fermentation to produce lactic acid from whey permeate. Process Biochemistry36(7), 671-675.
Ghaly, A. E., & Singh, J. P. (2006). Reduction of Microbial Population in Cheese Whey by UV in a Single and Series Conventional Reactors. American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology2(3), 89-96.
Ghaly, A. E., & Ben-Hassan, R. M. (1995). Kinetics of batch production of single-cell protein from cheese whey. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology50(1), 79-92.
Ghaly, A. E., Tango, M., Pyke, J. B., & Davidson, M. (2001). The production of biodegradable plastics from cheese whey. In Proceeding of the 11th World Conference of Food Sci. and Tech., Soul, Korea.
González-García, S., Castanheira, É. G., Dias, A. C., & Arroja, L. (2013). Environmental performance of a Portuguese mature cheese-making dairy mill. Journal of Cleaner production41, 65-73.
Guo, M., & Wang, G. (2019). History of whey production and whey protein manufacturing. Whey Protein Production, Chemistry, Functionality, and Applications; Guo, M., Ed, 1-12.
Hattem, H., & Hassabo, R. M. (2015). A study on wheyless, soft cheese manufacture. Journal of Food and Dairy Sciences6(9), 565-575.
Illanes, A. (2011). Whey upgrading by enzyme biocatalysis. Electronic Journal of Biotechnology14(6), 9-9.
Jelen, P. (2003). Whey processing| utilization and products. In Encyclopedia of Dairy Sciences; Fuquay, J., Fox, P., McSweeney, P., Eds.; Academic Press: London, UK, 2003.
Kaminarides, S. (2015). A modified form of Myzithra cheese produced by substituting the fresh cheese whey by dried whey protein concentrate and ovine milk and cream. Small Ruminant Research131, 118-122.
Karaman, A. D., & Akalın, A. S. (2013). Improving quality characteristics of reduced and low fat Turkish white cheeses using homogenized cream. LWT-Food Science and Technology50(2), 503-510.
Katabehei Moradi, Z., & Kioumarsi, H. (2021). Cheese whey recycling, the right approach to prevent environmental damage. Journal of Environmental Research and Technology7(7), 91-99.
Kia Deliri Ahmad, S., Rahimpoor, A., & Shabanian, R. (2017). Laboratory simulation and analysis of membrane bioreactors for the filtration of whey effluent. Congress of Iranian Water and Wastewater Science and Engineering, Isfahan, Iran.
King, S., & Weedon, G. (2020). Embodiment is ecological: The metabolic lives of whey protein powder. Body & Society26(1), 82-106.
Lashkari, H., Varidi, M. J., Eskandari, M. H., & Varidi, M. (2020). Effect of pomegranate juice on the manufacturing process and characterization of feta-type cheese during storage. Journal of Food Quality2020, 8816762.
Mirhabibi, O., & Bolandi, M. (2014). Production of wheyless cream cheese with wheat fiber and sodium caseinate and determination of its chemical rheological and sensory characteristics. Ph.D. Thesis. Islamic azad university, Damghan branch, Damghan, Iran. 
Gomah, N. H., Mohamed, T. H., Ahmed, H. A., & Ragab, W. S. (2019). Production of white soft cheese without whey separation. Journal of Biochemical Technology10(3), 105-109.
Nazari, S. M. (2016). Free amino acid profile and textural and sensory characteristics of whey less feta cheese. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation8(1), 87-105.
Notarnicola, B., Sala, S., Anton, A., McLaren, S. J., Saouter, E., & Sonesson, U. (2017). The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges. Journal of Cleaner Production140, 399-409.
Palmieri, N., Forleo, M. B., & Salimei, E. (2017). Environmental impacts of a dairy cheese chain including whey feeding: An Italian case study. Journal of Cleaner Production140, 881-889.
Pires, A. F., Marnotes, N. G., Rubio, O. D., Garcia, A. C., & Pereira, C. D. (2021). Dairy by-products: A review on the valorization of whey and second cheese whey. Foods10(5), 1067.
Piri Gheshlaghi, S., Sadeghi Mahoonak, A. R., Alami, M., & Ghorbani, M. (2016). Optimization of nitrogen recovery of whey protein hydrolysates by using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Technology and Nutrition13(4), 35-44.
Poursharif, K., Fadaei, V., & Daneshi, M. (2013). Effects of the substitution of inulin for fat on textural characteristics and sensory evaluation of reduced-fat wheyless cream cheese. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology (Pakistan), 10(1), 67-71.
Ryan, M. P., & Walsh, G. (2016). The biotechnological potential of whey. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology15(3), 479-498.
Röös, E., Patel, M., & Spångberg, J. (2016). Producing oat drink or cow's milk on a Swedish farm—Environmental impacts considering the service of grazing, the opportunity cost of land and the demand for beef and protein. Agricultural Systems142, 23-32.
Sakin-Yilmazer, M., Koç, B., Balkir, P., & Kaymak-Ertekin, F. (2014). Rheological behavior of reconstituted yoghurt powder—An optimization study. Powder technology266, 433-439.
Sar, T., Harirchi, S., Ramezani, M., Bulkan, G., Akbas, M. Y., Pandey, A., & Taherzadeh, M. J. (2021). Potential utilization of dairy industries by-products and wastes through microbial processes: A critical review. Science of the Total Environment, 810, 152253.
Sar, T., Stark, B. C., & Yesilcimen Akbas, M. (2017). Effective ethanol production from whey powder through immobilized E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla hemoglobin. Bioengineered, 8(2), 171-181.
Siso, M. G. (1996). The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: a review. Bioresource technology57(1), 1-11.
Smithers, G. W. (2008). Whey and whey proteins—From ‘gutter-to-gold’. International dairy journal18(7), 695-704.
Sommella, E., Pepe, G., Ventre, G., Pagano, F., Conte, G. M., Ostacolo, C., ... & Campiglia, P. (2016). Detailed peptide profiling of “Scotta”: From a dairy waste to a source of potential health-promoting compounds. Dairy Science & Technology96(5), 763-771.
Stiles, K. (2012). US Dairy Export Council. In NCCIA Annual Conference.
Tango, M. S. A., & Ghaly, A. E. (1999). Amelioration of lactic acid production from cheese whey using micro-aeration. Biomass and Bioenergy17(3), 221-238.
Van Middelaar, C. E., Berentsen, P. B. M., Dolman, M. A., & De Boer, I. J. M. (2011). Eco-efficiency in the production chain of Dutch semi-hard cheese. Livestock science139(1-2), 91-99.
Yıldız, N., & Bakırcı, I. (2019). Investigation of the use of whey powder and buttermilk powder instead of skim milk powder in yogurt production. Journal of food science and technology56(10), 4429-4436.
Zornoza, B., Casado, C., & Navajas, A. (2013). Advances in hydrogen separation and purification with membrane technology (pp. 245-268). Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands.