Developing a smart colorimetric indicator film by incorporating pomegranate peel powder into cassava starch film

Document Type : Original research


1 Department of Food Science & Technology, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran

2 Food Technology Division, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia

3 Green Biopolymer, Coatings & Packaging Cluster, School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pomegranate peel powder on the physicochemical, barrier, and pH sensitivity of the films based on cassava starch. The pomegranate peel powder (PPP) was used at levels of 2, 4, 6, and 8% w/v in starch film formulation, and the thickness, water solubility, water vapor (WVP) and oxygen permeability, and opacity were determined, and the color variations of the films were also measured after immersion in different pH buffers (pH 4.0-9.0). The results demonstrated the addition of PPP to film formulation and increasing its levels, the water solubility, opacity, WVP, and oxygen permeability were increased (p<0.05), so that the values of these parameters in the control sample were 33.78%, 0.65 mm-1, 6.92 × 10-10 g/s.m.Pa, and 4.06 cc-mil/m2.Day, respectively, and in the film containing 8% of PPP reached 41.32%, 1.25 mm-1, 7.72 × 10-10 g/s.m.Pa, and 5.63 cc-mil/m2.Day, respectively. The results of examining the sensitivity of films to pH showed that the color of the produced films changed against changes in solution pH so that with increasing the pH of the solution to the neutral and alkaline range, the color of the films changed from reddish pink to green. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that the intelligent films based on cassava starch containing PPP can be used as pH-sensitive indicators to display the freshness of food products.


Main Subjects

Andretta, R., Luchese, C. L., Tessaro, I. C., & Spada, J. C. (2019). Development and characterization of pH-indicator films based on cassava starch and blueberry residue by thermocompression. Food Hydrocolloids, 93, 317-324.
ASTM. (2016). American society standard testing and materials. Standard Test Methods for Water Vapor Transmission of Materials, E96/E96M-16.
ASTM. (2017). Standard test method for oxygen gas transmission rate through plastic film and sheeting using a coulometric sensor. D3985-17. In: ASTM International West Conshohocken, PA, USA.
Azarpazhooh, E., Sharayei, P., Zomorodi, S., & Ramaswamy, H. S. (2019). Physicochemical and phytochemical characterization and storage stability of freeze-dried encapsulated pomegranate peel anthocyanin and in vitro evaluation of its antioxidant activity. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 12(2), 199-210.
Azlim, N. A., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Oladzadabbasabadi, N., Ariffin, F., Ghalambor, P., Jafarzadeh, S., & Al-Hassan, A. A. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of a pH-sensitive intelligent film incorporating dragon fruit skin extract. Food Science & Nutrition, 10(2), 597-608.
Bhat, R., Abdullah, N., Din, R. H., & Tay, G. S. (2013). Producing novel sago starch based food packaging films by incorporating lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste. Journal of Food Engineering, 119(4), 707-713.
Bilgiç, S., Söğüt, E., & Seydim, A. C. (2019). Chitosan and starch based intelligent films with anthocyanins from eggplant to monitor pH variations. Turkish Journal of Agriculture-Food Science & Technology, 7(sp1), 61-66.
Capello, C., Trevisol, T. C., Pelicioli, J., Terrazas, M. B., Monteiro, A. R., & Valencia, G. A. (2021). Preparation and characterization of colorimetric indicator films based on chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol and anthocyanins from agri-food wastes. Journal of Polymers & the Environment, 29(5), 1616-1629.
Chi, W., Cao, L., Sun, G., Meng, F., Zhang, C., Li, J., & Wang, L. (2020). Developing a highly pH-sensitive ĸ-carrageenan-based intelligent film incorporating grape skin powder via a cleaner process. Journal of Cleaner Production, 244, 118862.
Choi, I., Lee, J. Y., Lacroix, M., & Han, J. (2017). Intelligent pH indicator film composed of agar/potato starch and anthocyanin extracts from purple sweet potato. Food Chemistry, 218, 122-128.
Cui, C., Ji, N., Wang, Y., Xiong, L., & Sun, Q. (2021). Bioactive and intelligent starch-based films: A review. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 116, 854-869.
Cui, H., Surendhiran, D., Li, C., & Lin, L. (2020). Biodegradable zein active film containing chitosan nanoparticle encapsulated with pomegranate peel extract for food packaging. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 24, 100511.
de Moraes Crizel, T., de Oliveira Rios, A., D. Alves, V., Bandarra, N., Moldão-Martins, M., & Hickmann Flôres, S. (2018). Active food packaging prepared with chitosan and olive pomace. Food Hydrocolloids, 74, 139-150.
Emam-Djomeh, Z., Moghaddam, A., & Yasini Ardakani, S. A. (2015). Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract, physical, mechanical, barrier and antimicrobial properties of pomegranate peel extract-incorporated sodium caseinate film and application in packaging for ground beef. Packaging Technology & Science, 28(10), 869-881.
Esfahani, A., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Baghaei, H., & Nouri, L. (2022). Fabrication and characterization of a smart film based on cassava starch and pomegranate peel powder for monitoring lamb meat freshness. Food Science & Nutrition, n/a(n/a).
Fernández-Marín, R., Fernandes, S. C. M., Sánchez, M. Á. A., & Labidi, J. (2022). Halochromic and antioxidant capacity of smart films of chitosan/chitin nanocrystals with curcuma oil and anthocyanins. Food Hydrocolloids, 123, 107119.
Gasti, T., Dixit, S., D'Souza, O. J., Hiremani, V. D., Vootla, S. K., Masti, S. P., Chougale, R. B., & Malabadi, R. B. (2021). Smart biodegradable films based on chitosan/methylcellulose containing Phyllanthus reticulatus anthocyanin for monitoring the freshness of fish fillet. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 187, 451-461.
Halász, K., & Csóka, L. (2018). Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) pomace extract immobilized in chitosan for colorimetric pH indicator film application. Food Packaging & Shelf Life, 16, 185-193.
Hematian, F., Baghaie, H., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., & Bolandi, M. (2022). The effects of Coleus scutellarioides extract on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of fish gelatin active films. Journal of Food and Bioprocess Engineering, 5(1), 9-15.
Huang, S., Wang, G., Lin, H., Xiong, Y., Liu, X., & Li, H. (2021). Preparation and dynamic response properties of colorimetric indicator films containing pH-sensitive anthocyanins. Sensors and Actuators Reports, 3, 100049.
Javidi, S., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., & Moghadam, H. H. (2022). Synergistic effect of nano-ZnO and Mentha piperita essential oil on the moisture sorption isotherm, antibacterial activity, physicochemical, mechanical, and barrier properties of gelatin film. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 16(2), 964-974.
Kaderides, K., Goula, A. M., & Adamopoulos, K. G. (2015). A process for turning pomegranate peels into a valuable food ingredient using ultrasound-assisted extraction and encapsulation. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 31, 204-215.
Kim, S. R. B., Choi, Y.-G., Kim, J.-Y., & Lim, S.-T. (2015). Improvement of water solubility and humidity stability of tapioca starch film by incorporating various gums. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 64(1), 475-482.
Kurek, M., Guinault, A., Voilley, A., Galić, K., & Debeaufort, F. (2014). Effect of relative humidity on carvacrol release and permeation properties of chitosan based films and coatings. Food Chemistry, 144, 9-17.
Liu, J., Wang, H., Wang, P., Guo, M., Jiang, S., Li, X., & Jiang, S. (2018). Films based on κ-carrageenan incorporated with curcumin for freshness monitoring. Food Hydrocolloids, 83, 134-142.
Ma, Q., & Wang, L. (2016). Preparation of a visual pH-sensing film based on tara gum incorporating cellulose and extracts from grape skins. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 235, 401-407.
Maizura, M., Fazilah, A., Norziah, M., & Karim, A. (2008). Film Incorporated with Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) Oil. International Food Research Journal, 15, 233-236.
Mehdizadeh, T., Tajik, H., & Razavi Rohani, S. M. (2012). Antibacterial, antioxidant and optical properties of edible starch-chitosan composite film containing pomegranate peel extract. Studies in Medical Sciences, 23(3), 315-323.
Meng, Y., Cao, Y., Xiong, K., Ma, L., Zhu, W., Long, Z., & Dong, C. (2021). Effect of cellulose nanocrystal addition on the physicochemical properties of hydroxypropyl guar-based intelligent films. Membranes, 11(4), 242.
Merz, B., Capello, C., Leandro, G. C., Moritz, D. E., Monteiro, A. R., & Valencia, G. A. (2020). A novel colorimetric indicator film based on chitosan, polyvinyl alcohol and anthocyanins from jambolan (Syzygium cumini) fruit for monitoring shrimp freshness. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 153, 625-632.
Moghadam, M., Salami, M., Mohammadian, M., Khodadadi, M., & Emam-Djomeh, Z. (2020). Development of antioxidant edible films based on mung bean protein enriched with pomegranate peel. Food Hydrocolloids, 104, 105735.
Moosavian, V., Marvizadeh, M. M., & Mohammadi Nafchi, A. (2017). Biodegradable Films based on cassava starch/mentha piperita essence: fabrication, characterization and properties. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 7(3), 239-245.
Oladzadabbasabadi, N., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Ariffin, F., & Karim, A. A. (2022). Chapter 11 - Plant extracts as packaging aids. In S. A. Mir, A. Manickavasagan, & M. A. Shah (Eds.), Plant Extracts: Applications in the Food Industry (pp. 225-268): Academic Press.
Oladzadabbasabadi, N., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Ghasemlou, M., Ariffin, F., Singh, Z., & Al-Hassan, A. A. (2022). Natural anthocyanins: Sources, extraction, characterization, and suitability for smart packaging. Food Packaging & Shelf Life, 33, 100872.
Oliveira Filho, J. G. d., Braga, A. R. C., Oliveira, B. R. d., Gomes, F. P., Moreira, V. L., Pereira, V. A. C., & Egea, M. B. (2021). The potential of anthocyanins in smart, active, and bioactive eco-friendly polymer-based films: A review. Food Research International, 142, 110202.
Peralta, J., Bitencourt-Cervi, C. M., Maciel, V. B. V., Yoshida, C. M. P., & Carvalho, R. A. (2019). Aqueous hibiscus extract as a potential natural pH indicator incorporated in natural polymeric films. Food Packaging & Shelf Life, 19, 47-55.
Pereira, V. A., de Arruda, I. N. Q., & Stefani, R. (2015). Active chitosan/PVA films with anthocyanins from Brassica oleraceae (Red Cabbage) as Time–Temperature Indicators for application in intelligent food packaging. Food Hydrocolloids, 43, 180-188.
Prietto, L., Mirapalhete, T. C., Pinto, V. Z., Hoffmann, J. F., Vanier, N. L., Lim, L.-T., Guerra Dias, A. R., & da Rosa Zavareze, E. (2017). pH-sensitive films containing anthocyanins extracted from black bean seed coat and red cabbage. LWT, 80, 492-500.
Qin, Y., Liu, Y., Yong, H., Liu, J., Zhang, X., & Liu, J. (2019). Preparation and characterization of active and intelligent packaging films based on cassava starch and anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 134, 80-90.
Salajegheh, F., Tajeddin, B., Panahi, B., & Karimi, H. (2020). Effect of edible coatings based on zein and chitosan and the use of Roman aniseed oil on the microbial activity of Mazafati dates. Journal of Food and Bioprocess Engineering, 3(2), 178-184.
Singh, S., Gaikwad, K. K., & Lee, Y. S. (2018). Anthocyanin-A natural dye for smart food packaging systems. Korean Journal of Packaging Science & Technology, 24(3), 167-180.
Sun, L., Sun, J., Chen, L., Niu, P., Yang, X., & Guo, Y. (2017). Preparation and characterization of chitosan film incorporated with thinned young apple polyphenols as an active packaging material. Carbohydrate Polymers, 163, 81-91.
Tamimi, N., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Hashemi-Moghaddam, H., & Baghaie, H. (2021). The effects of nano-zinc oxide morphology on functional and antibacterial properties of tapioca starch bionanocomposite. Food Science & Nutrition, 9(8), 4497-4508.
Tongdeesoontorn, W., Mauer, L. J., Wongruong, S., Sriburi, P., & Rachtanapun, P. (2020). Physical and antioxidant properties of cassava starch–carboxymethyl cellulose incorporated with quercetin and TBHQ as active food packaging. Polymers, 12(2), 366.
Veiga-Santos, P., Ditchfield, C., & Tadini, C. C. (2011). Development and evaluation of a novel pH indicator biodegradable film based on cassava starch. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 120(2), 1069-1079.
Wang, X., Yong, H., Gao, L., Li, L., Jin, M., & Liu, J. (2019). Preparation and characterization of antioxidant and pH-sensitive films based on chitosan and black soybean seed coat extract. Food Hydrocolloids, 89, 56-66.
Xue Mei, L., Mohammadi Nafchi, A., Ghasemipour, F., Mat Easa, A., Jafarzadeh, S., & Al-Hassan, A. A. (2020). Characterization of pH sensitive sago starch films enriched with anthocyanin-rich torch ginger extract. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 164, 4603-4612.
Yan, Q., Hou, H., Guo, P., & Dong, H. (2012). Effects of extrusion and glycerol content on properties of oxidized and acetylated corn starch-based films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(1), 707-712.
Yang, Z., Zhai, X., Zou, X., Shi, J., Huang, X., Li, Z., Gong, Y., Holmes, M., Povey, M., & Xiao, J. (2021). Bilayer pH-sensitive colorimetric films with light-blocking ability and electrochemical writing property: Application in monitoring crucian spoilage in smart packaging. Food Chemistry, 336, 127634.
Yong, H., Liu, J., Qin, Y., Bai, R., Zhang, X., & Liu, J. (2019). Antioxidant and pH-sensitive films developed by incorporating purple and black rice extracts into chitosan matrix. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 137, 307-316.
Yong, H., Wang, X., Bai, R., Miao, Z., Zhang, X., & Liu, J. (2019). Development of antioxidant and intelligent pH-sensing packaging films by incorporating purple-fleshed sweet potato extract into chitosan matrix. Food Hydrocolloids, 90, 216-224.
Yun, D., Cai, H., Liu, Y., Xiao, L., Song, J., & Liu, J. (2019). Development of active and intelligent films based on cassava starch and Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) anthocyanins. RSC advances, 9(53), 30905-30916.
Zahed, N., & Farahmandfar, R. (2021). Evaluation of color efficiency and antioxidant power of anthocyanin extract of pomegranate peel powder obtained by solvent extraction. Food Science and Technology, 18(117), 197-206.
Zeng, J., Ren, X., Zhu, S., & Gao, Y. (2021). Fabrication and characterization of an economical active packaging film based on chitosan incorporated with pomegranate peel. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 192, 1160-1168.